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VOL. 11. '^^ 




1878. • • 


g Cpmmrolior, 1878. 


The National Music of Wales. líy John Thomas, Esq. (Pen- 

cerdd Gwalia) . . . . .1 

C:1a Gwraig y Pysgodwr. Gan y Parch. By John Blacrwell 20 

The Song of the Fisherman's Wife. Translated by the Editor . 21 

Private Devotions of the Welsh in Days gone by. By the Rev. 

Elias Owen, of Ruthin . . . .24 

Epigrams from the Old Poets. — No. 2. Y Bradwr . . 32 

Archgeological Notes, rcad at the Meeting of the British Archseo- 
logical Association at Llangollen, August 29, 1877. By Pro- 
fessor Rhys, of Oxford . . . .33 

The Eisteddfod of the Future. By Mrs. A. Walter Thomas, 

and David Thomas, Esq. . . . .40 

Letters Addressed by Lewis Morris (Llewelyn Ddu) to Edward 

Richard of Ystrad Meurig {contiuued) . . .47 

The Fountain at Portmadoc . . . .82 

The Carnarvon Eisteddfod of 1877 , . . .84 

Reviews of Books : — 

Memorials of Charlotte Williams-Wynn. Edited by her 
SiSTER. With a Portrait. Longmans, Green and Co. 
London, 1877. . . . . .89 

Grammadeg Cymraeg gan David Rowlauds, B.A. (Dewi 
Mou). Athraw yn Ngholeg Aberhonddu, Wrexham : 
[n.d.] Hughes and Sou . . . .95 

Literary Announcements : — 

The Bard and the Cuckoo. By Lord Aberdare . 9G 

A Welsh-English Dictionary. By the Rev. D. Silvan 
EVANS . . . . .90 


Dialogue between tlie Bard and the Cuckoo, from the Welsh of 

Owain Gryffydd. By the Right Ilonourabìe Lord Aberdare 97 

Dafydd ab Gwilym. By Professor Cowell of Cambridge . 101 

On some Customs stiU remaining ìn Wales. By the Rev. Elias 

OwEN, M.A., of Ruthin . . . .133 

Letters addressed by Lewis Morris (Llewelyn Ddu) to Edward 

Richard of Ystrad Meurig (continued) . . . 138 

The Eisteddfodau of 1878 . . . . 161 

Address of Mr. Lewis Morris, President on the Chair-day, 
at the Menai Bridge Eisteddfod . . .163 

Welsh Address of Professor Rhŷs of Osford, at the same 
Eisteddfod on the sarae day . . . 1G7 

President's Chair, at Menai Bridge : a Poem. By Mr. 
Lewis Morris ..... 180 

Epigrams from the Old Poets. — No. 3. Craffder . . 181 

Address of Lord Aberdare at the Birkenhead Eisteddfod, 1878 . 182 

Reviews of Books : — 

Lectures on Welsh Philology. By Professor Rhys . 195 

A Dictionary of English Etymology. By Hensleigh 
AYedgwood . . . . .197 

Original Letters and Papers of the late Viscount Strangford 197 

The Ancient British Church. By Rev John Pryce, M.A. 198 

Jeremiah, an Oratorio. By John Owen (Owain AlawJ . 198 

The Art Union Jouiiial ând Joseÿh 'Edyfârds . . 199 

Literary Announcemeut : — 

Gwen : a Drama in Monologue. By Lewis Morris . 200 

C K m m r ìi 1\ 

JANUARY 18 78. 


By JOHN THOMAS, Esq. (Pencerdd Gwalia). 

In the mythological traditions of Pagan nations \ve fin<l 
the invention of their music and musical instruments attri- 
buted to their gods, or to superhuman beings of a godlike 
nature ; which may account for the art being called to this 
day — the divine art. Some of these traditions are not only 
interesting but highly amusing; and the following legend, 
as given by Carl Engel, in his Mijtlis and Facts, is worthy 
of notice : — " In the Finnish Mythology, the divine Vaina- 
moinen is said to have constructed the five-stringed harp, 
called Kantele, the old national instrument of the Finns. 
The frame he made out of the bones of the pike, and the 
teeth of the pike he used for the tuning-pegs. The strings 
he made of hair from the tail of a spirited horse. When 
the harp fell into the sea and \vas lost, he made another, the 
frame of which was of birchwood and the pegs of the branch 
of an oak-tree. As strings for tliis harp he used the silky 
hair of a young girl. Yainamoinen took his harp, and sat 
down on a hill near a silvery brook. There he played witli 
so irresistible an effect that he entranced whatever camo 
within hearing of his music. j\Ien and animals listened en- 


raptured ; the wild beasts of the forest lost their ferocity ; 
the birds of the air were drawn towards him ; the fishes 
rose to the surface of the water, and remained immovable ; 
the trees ceased to wave their branches ; the brook re- 
tarded its course, and the wind its haste ; even the moching 
echo approached stealthily, and listened with the utmost at- 
tention to the heavenly sounds. Soon the women began to 
cry, then the old men and the children also began to cry ; and 
the girls, and the young men — all cried for delight. At last 
Yainamoinen himself wept, and his big tears ran over his 
beard, and rolled into the water, and became beautiful pearls 
at the bottom of the sea.'^ 

Tliere was also the same tendency to immortalise those who ■ 
displayed transcendent genius in the art of music. 

At the death of Pythagoras, the celebrated Greek philo- 
sopher and musician, so great was tlie veneration of his 
countrymen for him, that he received the same honours as 
were paid to the immortal gods ; and his house became a 
sacred temple. 

Blegwryd ab Seisyllt, a British king, who flourished 
about 160 years before the Christian era, beiug a great 
musician and performer upon the harp, received the appella- 
tion of " God of Music^'. 

With regard to the source whence Britain derived her 
music and musical instruments, there appears very little 
doubt but that tliey were brought from the East, either by 
the inhabitants, in their original migration, or by the 
PhcenicianSj who, as is well known, had commercial inter- 
course with Britaiu from the earliest times. 

The Greehs are said to have derived their music, with 
other arts and sciences, from Cadmus, a Phoenician, and from 
Cecrops, an Egyptian, who settled in Greece about two 
thousand years before the Christian era. Consequently, as 
I have already suggested, if we did not bring our music 


and musical instruments with us, in our original migration 
from the East, in all probability, we are indebted for them to 
the Phoìnicians, who were of Hebrew origin — and were sup- 
posed to be none others than the Canaanites. 

It is a remarkable circumstance, in support of this sup- 
Dosition, that the Welsh word Tchjmi, " to play upon the 
harp", is said to signify precisely the same in the Phceni- 
cian language. This might go far to account for the harp of 
David being our national instrument. 

The harp, of all instruments, is the one which has been held 
in the most general esteem, and has for ages been the inse- 
parable companion of prophet, king, bard, and minstreL From 
the days of Jubal — " the father of all such as handle the harp 
aud organ " — it may be traced through all generations as 
holdiug the highest place amoug the Israelites, as is testified 
by the Holy Scriptures. For example, Laban reproaches 
Jacob, his son-in-law, iu the following wwds : — " Wherefore 
didst thou flee away secretly, and steal away from me ? and 
didst not tell me, that I might have sent thee away with 
mirth aud with songs, with tabret and with harp." 

Samuel, in his instructions to Saiil, after having secretly 
anointed him king, says: "And it sliall come to pass, when 
thou ai-t come thither to the city (Bethel), that thou shalt 
meet a company of prophets coming down from the high 
place with a psaltery, and a tabret, and a pipe, and a harp 
belbre them." 

Later on, in the days of King David, with whose event- 
ful life, from begiuning to end, it was associated in a re- 
markable degree, we fìnd the harp occupying a stiU more 
prominent position. The advice given to Saul by his ser- 
vants, will show the high estimation in whitíh this instru- 
ment was held in tliose days, especially in the hands of a 
skilful performer : — " Behold now an evil spirit from God 
troubleth thee. Let our Lord now command thy servants, 



wliicli are before thee, to seek out a nian who is a ciinning 
player upon the harp^ and it shall corae to pass, when the 
evil spirit from God is upon thee, that he shall play with 
his hand and thou shalt be well." 

On the very íirst occasion upon which David is pre- 
sented before Saul, we have the following account of the 
effect he produced upon that monarch, through the mediuni 
of his harp : — " And it came to pass, when the evil spirit 
from God was upon Saul, that David took an liarp and 
played with his hand : so Saul was refreshed, and was well, 
and the evil spirit departed from him." As a proof that the 
harp was David's constant companion in his worship of the 
Almighty, it is only necessary to quote a few, out of the in- 
numerable instances to be found in the Psalms : — "Awake 
iip, myglory, awake lute and harp, I myself wiU awake right 
early." " Then will I go unto the altar of God, unto God 
my exceeding joy : yea, upon tlie harp will I praise thee, 
God." " By the waters of Babylon, there we sat down, yea, 
we wept when we remembered Zion. We hanged our harps 
upon the willows in the midst thereof, for they tliat carried 
iis away captive required of us a song. How sliall we sing 
the Lord's song in a strange land ? If I forget thee, O Jeru- 
salem, let my right hand forget her cunning." Tlie last 
sentence evidently alludes to playing upon the harp, and the 
whole of this beautiful passage shows that such was the 
love of the Israelites for this instrument, that it accom- 
panied tliem even in their captivity, although they had not 
the heart to awaken its sweet sounds. Even up to the 
time of the Christian era, the harp was regarded with pecu- 
liar veneration ; for we íìnd John the Apostle making fre- 
quent mention of it in the Eevelations, from which we select 
the following remarkable passage : " And I heard a voice 
from Heaven, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice 
of a great thunder: and T heard the voice of harpers harp- 


ing upon tlieir liarps." It is not to be wondered at, then, that 
the Welsh, as a people, shouhl have retained their fondness 
for their national instrument, if my conjecture, as to the 
source from Mdiich they derived it, be correct. 

Eecent discoveries made in Egypt and Assyria, by Bruce, ' 
Layard, and others, show that the harp was equally popular in 
all these countries in ancieut times ; and it is to be found in 
every Eastern country, even to this day, in one form or 
another. It is generally found without the front piUar ; but 
Bruce, in a letter to Dr. Burney, also alludes to the repre- 
sentation of a harp upon a basso-relievo at Ptolemais, in 
Cyrenaicum, a city built by Ptolemy Philadelphus, where it 
is twice represented with fifteen strings or two octaves, and 
with the frpnt piUar ; the use of which he attributes to the 
additional strain of the extra strings — most other harps 
having less than that number, 

Greek historians clearly show that the ancient Britons and 
the ancient Greehs were well known to each other ; and they 
mention Abaris, a British druid and philosopher, who visited 
Greece in the time of Pythagoras. 

Himerius, a Greek orator, gives the following description 
of him : " Abaris came to Athens, not clad in skins like a 
Scythian, but with a bow in his hand, a quiver hangiug from 
his shoulder, a plaid wrapped about his body, a gilded belt 
encircling his loins, and pantaloons reaching from his waist 
to the sole of his feet. Moreover, he addressed us in our 
own tongue.^' 

On the other hand, the Greeks appear to have been ac- 
quainted with the British Isles, from the following descrip- 
tion given by Diodorus Siciüus, half a century before the 
Christian era. He says : " There is an Island over against 
Gaul, the size of Sicily, under the Arctic pole, inhabited by 
the Hyperboreans, so called because they lie far north. Tliey 
say tliat Latona was born there, and therefore that they 


worsln]3 Apollo above all otlier gods, because they daily 
siiig songs in praise of tbis god, and ascrihe to bim tlie 
lìighest houors. They say that these inhabitants demean 
themselves as if they were the priests of Apollo, who has 
'there a stately grove and renowned Temple of a circular 
forra, beautiíìed with many rich gifts ; tliat there is a city 
lilcewise consecrated to this god, whose citizens are most of 
them harpers, who, playing upon the harp, chaimt sacred 
hymns to Apollo in th.e Temple, setting forth his glorious 
acts. The Hyperboreans use their own natural language ; 
but, of long and ancient time, have had a special kindness 
for the Grecians ; and more especially for the Athenians and 
the Delians ; and that some of the Grecians passed over to 
the Hyperboreans, and left behind them divers presents (or 
tliings dedicated to the gods) inscribed with Greek charac- 
ters ; and that Abaris formerly travelled thence into Greece 
and renewed the ancient league of friendship with the 

Julius Cíesar, in liis Commcntaries, states that the Druids 
made use of the Greek characters and gives reasons for their 
doing so. In explaining the system of education adopted 
among their disciples, lie says : " They are taught to repeata 
great number of verses by heart, and often spend twenty years 
therein, for it is deemed unlawful to commit their statutes 
to writing ; though in other matters, whether public or 
prÌYate, they make use of Gi^eeh characters. They seem to 
me to follow this method for two reasons, — to hide their 
mysteries from the knowledge of the vulgar, and to exercise 
the memory of tlieir scholars." 

It may be a circumstance worthy of remark that Abaris 
was a name peculiar to Arabian kings in ancient times, as 
much so as Ptolemy was to Egyptian monarchs. 

In the fourth ceutury, Ammianus Marcellinus relates that 
the British bards celebrated the brave actious of illustrious 


men in heroic poems, whicli tbey sang to the sweet sound 

of the harp. 

In this respect they resembled the Grecians, as is shown 

hj Homer, in the 9th book of the Iliad (v. 245). In 

the embassy sent by Agamemnon to Achilles, during his 

retirement, after he had quitted the Grecian camp, he gives 

the füUowing description : 

" Amus'd at ease, the God like man they found, 
Pleas'd with the solemn harjj's harmonious sound ; 
(The well-wrought harp from conquer'd Thebse came, 
Of polish'd silver was its costly frame) ; 
With this he sootlies his angry soul, and sings 
Th' immortal deeds of heroes and of kings." 

The most remarkable feature of all, in comparing the 
manners aud customs of the ancient Greeks with those of 
the ancient Britons, is to be found in the singular similarity 
between the Olympic games and the Eisteddfodau, which 
have been periodically held in Wales from time immemorial, 
and continued up to the present. It is true that athletic 
games are no longer included iu the programme of the 
Eisteddfod — in addition to music and poetry — as was the 
case in the Olympic games ; neitlier have we any instance 
of a challenge of skill between two musicians, and its being 
mutually agreed that he who was defeated should be tied to 
a tree aud flayed alive by the conqueror, as was the case 
between Marsyas and ApoUo; but the particular trials of 
strength mentioned in the Grecian contests, such as running, 
leaping, wrestling, boxing, and throwing the quoit, are 
aU included in the four-and-twenty games of the Welsh ; 
and in all probability, they were encouraged at the Eis- 
teddfodau in former times, aud until the more cÌYÜisiuff 
influence of music and poetry caused them to be discon- 

The first Eisteddfod of which we ]iave any historical 
record, was held in the middle of the seventh century, pre- 


sided over by King Cadwaladr ; — as it was a ijrerogative 
peculiar to tlie aiicient kings of Britain to preside at the 
Eisteddfod or Congress of the Bards. 

A curious circumstance is related by two Welsh his- 
torians, Dr. John David Ehŷs and John PJiydderch, as having 
occurred upon that occasion : — " King Cadwaladr sat in an 
Eisteddfod, assembled for the purpose of regulating the 
bards, of taking into consideration their productions and 
performances, and of giving laws to music and poetry. A 
bard, who played upon the harp in the presence of this illus- 
trious assembly in a key called is-gywair, ar y hragod dtnmau 
(in the low pitch and in the minor or mixed key),which dis- 
pleased them much, was censured for the inharmonious 
effect he produced. The key in which he played was that 
of Pibau Morvydd [i.e., ' Caniad Pibau Morvydd sydd ar y 
bragod gywair' — ' The Song of Morvydd's Pipes is in the 
minor or mixed key.' He was then ordered, under great 
peualties, whenever he came before persons skilful in the art, 
to adopt that of Muupien Gwynedd, ' the pleasing melody of 
North Wales,' which the royal associates first gave out, and 
preferred. They even decreed that none could sing or play 
with true harmony but with Mwynen Gwynedd, because tliat 
was in a key which consisted of notes that formed perfect 
concords, whilst the other was of a mixed nature." 

I am strongly impressed with the conviction that the 
above incident arose from a general desire to suppress an 
attempt to introduce into Wales the pentatonic, or so-called 
Scotch scale, where the fourth and leading notes of the key 
are omitted, which accounts for the peculiar, not to say 
startling effect, produced upon a cultivated musical ear by 
the Scotch bagpipe of the present day, upon which, the 
music written for it passes from major to minor, without the 
least regard for the tonic and dominant drones of tlie original 
key, which still continue to sound on to the end of the per- 


Tlie relation of tlie above incident also sliows tliat the 
Welsh were already in possession of a scale or key, which, 
liy their own showing, consisted of notes that formed perfect 
concords ; whereas the other, which they objected to, was of 
a iuixed nature — neither major nor minor, but a mixture of 
the two, which is not altogether an inapt way of describiug 
the pentatonic, or Scotch scale. 

I shall require to allude to this iucident in connection 
with a subject to be mentioned Later ; but there is a word used 
in the relation of this account, in the original Welsh, which 
I may as well poÌDt out at once, as having a signifìcation 
peculiar to the Welsh language. In ancient Welsh works, 
" io 2ìlay npon the harp" is expres3ed " to smg upon the harp" 
— Canu ar y Delyii. It is also the same as regards the crwth, 
an old Welsh instrument, which was so popular in Britain in 
ohlen times as to have been mistahen, by historians of the 
sixth century, for our national instrument. This form of ex- 
pression we appear to have derived from the Israelites ; for 
Ave find in Habakkuk, iii, 19, that the Prophet dedicates his 
last prayer — "To the ch.ì&isinger on my stringed Instruments". 

At this period, the seventh century, according to the Yener- 
able Bede, the harp was so generally played in Britain that it 
was customary to hand it from one to another at their enter- 
tainments; and he mentions one who, ashamed that he could 
not play upon it, slunk away lest he should expose his igno- 

In such honour was the harp hekl in Wales that a slave 
might not practice upon it ; while to play on the instrument 
was an indispensable qualification of a gentleman. The 
ancient laws of Hywel Dda mention three kinds of harps : 
the harp of the king ; the harp of a pencerdd, or master of 
music ; and the harp of a nobleman. A professor of this 
favourite instrument enjoyed many privileges ; his lands 
were free, and his person sacred. 


It was tlie office of the ancient bard to sing to his harp, 
before and after battle, the old song called Unbeniaeth Pryd- 
ain, or the "Monarchical song of Britain", which contained 
the exploits of the most worthy heroes, to inspire others to 
imitate their glorious example. 

Diodorus Siculus also says : " The bards stept in between 
hostile armies, standing with tlieir swords drawn and their 
spears extended ready to engage, and by their eloquence, as 
by irresistible enchantment, prevented the effusion of blood, 
and preYailed upon them to sheath their swords." 

In the eleventh century, Gryffudd ap Cynan, king of 
North Wales, held a Congress for the purpose of reforming 
the order of the Welsh bards ; and he im^ted several of 
the fraternity from Ireland to assist in carrying out the con- 
templated reforms ; the most important of which appears to 
have been the separation of the professions of bard and min- 
strel — in other words — of poetry and music ; both of which 
had hitlierto been united in one and the same person. In 
aU probability, it was considered that both poetry and music 
would be greatly benefited by the separation, each being 
thought sufficient to occupy the whole and undivided atten- 
tiou of one person. 

The next was the revision of the rules for the composition 
and performance of music. The twenty-four musical mea- 
sures were permanently established, as well as a number of 
keys, scales, etc. ; and it was decreed that from henceforth 
all compositions were to be written in accordance with those 
enactments ; and, moreover, that none but those who were 
couversant with the rules should be considered thorough 
musicians, or competent to undertake the instruction of 
others. All these reforms were written down in books, in 
the Welsh and Irish languages ; as is shown by a manu- 
script now in the British Museum, copied in the fifteenth 
century from another book dating from the time when the 


above reforms were instituted. In this manuscript will also 
be found some of tlie most ancient pieces of music of the 
Britons, supposed to have been handed down to us from the 
ancient bards. I have carefully studied the coutents, and 
find that the whole of the music is written for the Crioth, 
in a system of notation by the letters of the alphabet, with 
merely one line to divide bass and treble. 

Dr. Burney, after a life-long research into the musical 
notations of ancient nations, gives the following as the result : 
— " It does not appear from history that the Egj'ptians, 
Phcenicians, Hebrews, or any ancient people who cultivated 
the arts, except the Greehs and Eomans, had musical cha- 
racters ; and these liad no other symbols of sound than the 
letters of the alphabet, which likewise served them for 
arithmetical numbers aud chronological dates.^^ 

The system of notation under consideration resembles tliat 
of Pope Gregory's in the sixth century, and may have found 
its way into this country about that period, when he sent 
Augustine and a number of musicians into Britain to reform 
the abuses which had crept into the services of the western 

The circumstance of Irish names being attached to tlie 
twenty-four musical measures in the ancient manuscript, 
has led many historians to the erroneous conclusion that 
"Wales derived the whole of her rausic from Ireland, at the 
time of Gruffydd ab Cynan ; when, as is alleged, the mea- 
sures were constructed. Even Welsli chroniclers, such as 
Giraldus Cambrensis, Caradoc, Powel, and others, have 
made this statement in their works upon the strength of the 
circumstance alluded to ; therefore, it is not surprising that 
modem writers, sucli as Gunn, Walker, Bunting, Sir John 
Hawkins, and others, should have been deceived by relying 
upon such apparently good authority. But, independently of 
the extreme dissimilarity of the Welsh and Irish music that 


has been banded down to us, it so happens tbat otber parts 
of tbe same document bear ample testimony to tbe con- 
trary. Tbe AVelsb bad tbeir twenty-four metres in poetry 
as well as tbeir twenty-four atbletic games ; and tbe follow- 
ing circumstance will sbow tbat tbey also possessed tbeir 
twenty-four musical measures ceuturies prior to tbe Con- 
gress beld by Gryffudd ab Cynan. 

Among tbe ancient pieces included in tbe manuscript, is 
one bearing tbe foUowing title, Gosteg yr Halen (" Prelude to 
tbe Salt"), and at tbe end is tbe foUowing account concerning 
it : " Tervyn Gosteg yr Halen, yr bon a vyddid yn ei cbanu 
o vlaen Marcbogion Artbur pan roid y Sallter a'r balen ar y 
bwrdd.^' " Here ends tbe Prelude to tbe Salt, wbicb used to 
be performed before tlie knigbts of King Artbur, wben tbe 
Salter was placed upon tbe table." 

As one part of tbe manuscript must be considered as 
autbentic as anotber, tbe above composition takes us as far 
back as tbe middle of tbe sixtb century — tbe time wben 
King Artbur flourisbed ; and tbe composition is written in 
one of tbe twenty-four measures — 3íac Mum hyr — as may be 
seen by tbe copy wbicb I bave decipbered and publisbed in 
tbe second edition of tbe Myvyrian Arclimology. It is 
also asserted tbat even tbe keys used in Welsb music were 
broiigbt over from Ireland at tlie same time as tbe twenty- 
four measures — tliat is, in tbe reign of Gruffydd ab Cynan. 
Tbere are íive keys mentioned in Welsb music : 

1. Is-gywair — tbe low key, or key of C. 

2. Cras-gywair — tbe sharp key, or key of G. 

3. Lleddf-gywair — i\\e,fiat key, or key of F. 

4. Go-gywair — tbe key witb a flat, or minor tbird; tbe 
remainder of tbe scale, in every otlier respect, being 

5. Bragod-gyymir — called tbe niinor or mixed key. 


Another piece included in the mannscript is Caniad Pibau 
Morvydd, " The Song of Morvydd's Pipes," the composition 
already alhided to, as having heen performed on the harp hy 
a hard at the Eisteddvod presided over hy King Cadwaladr in 
the seventh century ; and it happens to he in one of the 
above keys ; Caniad Pibau Mowydd sydd ar y Brayod 
dannau, " The Song of Morvydd's Pipes is in the minor or 
mixed key." It is hoped, therefore, that the insertion of the 
ahove historical note may he considered a conchisive reply 
to such a mis-statement. 

The twenty-four nieasures — which consisted of a given 
numher of repetitions of the chords of the tonic and dominant, 
according to the length of each measure — do not appear in 
the music of Wales after the date to which the manuscript 
refers (a.d. 1040), a circumstance which may he considered 
most fortunate ; for, although most ingeniously contrived and 
well adapted to the purpose for which they were intended at 
that early period, viz., for the guidance of performers on the 
harp and crwth — the latter heing used as an accompa- 
niment to the harp — had such rules remained in force, 
they would have had the effect of rendering our natioual 
music intensely monotonous aud uninteresting, and would 
have thoroughly destroyed all freedom of imagination 
in musical composition ; whereas, the national music of 
Wales is remarhahle for its heauty of melody, richness 
of harmony, and variety of construction. It is also exceed- 
ingly diatonic, wdiich evidently arose from the difficulty 
of modulating upon the ancient harp, which had hut one 
row of strings ; although it is said that the performer had a 
method of producing an occasional accidental, hy pressing 
the string with the thumb and first finger. 

Davydd ab Gwilym, who flourished ahout the fourteenth 
century, alludes, with much enthusiasnij in one of his poems, 
to the harp strung with glossy black hair; supposed to 


have been tlie instrument upon wliich the unclergraduates 
were obliged to study until they took a degree. He also 
mentions an Irish harp which had foimd its way into 
Wales in his time ; and he speaks disparagingly of it, on 
account of the ugliness of its shape and the harshness of 
its tone — being strung with wire and played upon, to quote 
his own words, '' with a horny nail of unpleasant form". The 
Irish harper allowed his nails to grow long, and cut them 
to a point, like the quills of a spinnet. Therefore, tlie 
severest punishment tliat could be inflicted upon him, 
was to cut his nails short, as it took a_ considerable 
time for them to grow long enough to admit of his playing 

Between this time and the sixteenth century a great im- 
provement took place, in the invention of a harp with two 
rows of strings, consisting of the diatonic scale on the right 
side from the upper part down to tlie centre of the instru- 
ment, with another row of accidentals on the opposite side, 
to be played, whenever required, by putting the finger 
through ; and the diatonic scale continued on the left side, 
from the centre to the lower part of the instrument, with the 
accidentals on the other row on the opposite side. This 
arrangement shows that the harp was lield on the right 
shoulder, and played upon with the right hand in the treble 
and with the left hand in the bass. 

Yincentio Galilei, in his Dissertation on Ancient ancl 
Modern Music, published at Florence in 1581, states that 
tlie double harp was common in Italy in his day ; and that it 
was derived from Ireland. 

It is very difficult to conceive how the Irish could pos- 
sibly have ever possessed such an instrument, inasmuch as it 
has left no trace whatever upon their music, the peculiarity 
of the scale of which consists in leaving out all accidentals 
and notes which indicate the least modulation from key to 


key, but ^yhicli notes would liave beeii available upon the in- 
strument alluded to. 

A circumstance which lias recently come under my notice, 
(Toes far to show that it mio'ht have oriííinated in AVales. A 
bronze bas-relief by Donatello, forms part of the high altar 
in the Church of St. Antonio, in Padua. The date is about 
1450. One of the figures is that of an angel playing the 
harp, and the shape of the instrument is precisely that of the 
Welsh triple harp. I accidentally discovered a plaister cast 
of the original bronze at the Kensington Museum, wliere it 
may be seen. 

In any case, whether the double harp originated in Ireland 
or in Wales, the invention of the Welsh triple harp, with 
three rows of strings, naturally followed ; for, as music 
advanced^ the inconvenience of being circumscribed within 
tlie limited compass of only half the diatonic scale on 
either side of the instrument would soon be felt ; therefore, it 
was extended on each side to the fuU extent of the instru- 
ment, with a centre row of accidentals, accessible from either 


It is worthy of remark that the Welsh triple harp is the 
only instrument of the kind that has ever been known with the 
strings on the right side of the comb ; thereby necessitating 
its being tuned with the tuning-hammer in the left hand, 
which is exceedingly awkward to anyone who is not left- 
handed. This circumstance may also explain why it is held 
on the left shoulder, and played upon v/ith the left hand in 
the treble and the right hand in the bass, so as to have a fuU 
view of the strings ; otherwise the comb would inconveniently 
intercept the view, as is the case when Welsh harpers in the 
present day attempt to play upon the modern English pedal 
harp, — holding it on the left instead of the right shoulder, 
with the strings on the left side of the comb. 

The science of music having so rapidly advanced within 


the last centiiry, rendered it absolutely necessary that still 
further improvements should be made in the harp, that it 
might keep pace with other instruments. The difficulty of 
playing upon the inner row of strings of the triple harp in 
rapid passages, and the impossibility of playing in any other 
key than the one in which the instrument was tuned, gave 
rise to the invention of the pedal harp, M'hich is an immense 
improvement, in a musical sense, upon any former inven- 
tion ; as it admits of the most rapid modulation into every 
key, and enables the performer to execute passages and com- 
binations that wouhl not have been dreamt of previously. 
In the double-action harp, perfected by Erard, each note has 
its flat, natural, and sharp, which is not the case with any 
other stringed instrument; and this enables the modern 
harpist to produce those beautiful enharmonic effects which 
are peculiar to the instrument. Another remarkable advant- 
age has been attained by this invention — the reduction in 
the number of strings to one row ; which enables the per- 
former not only to keep the instrument in better tune, but to 
use a thicker string, and thus attain a quality of tone, which, 
for mellowness and richness, may be advantageously com- 
pared with that of any other instrument in existence. 

To return to the Welsh triple harp. The increased re- 
sources attained by the invention of that instrument, as 
being so far in advance of any other instrument of its kind, 
up to that period, gave a powerful impetus to the progress 
of music in the Principality ; and may go far to account for 
the superior beauty, in an artistic point of view, of the 
national music of Wales over that of any other country. 
This fact is admitted by the most eminent writers on music ; 
and, lest I should be considered too partial, as a Welshman, 
witli regard to the music of my native country, I venture to 
quote Dr. Crotch^ a distinguished composer and learned his- 
torian, and, for some time, Professor of music in the Univer- 


sity of Oxford, and Principal of the Eoyal Academy of Music. 
In the first volume of his Sjjecimens of Yarious Styles of 
Music, referred to in his course of lectures, he writes as 
follows : — 

" British and Welsh music may be considered as one, since 
the original British music was, with the inhabitants, driven 
into Wales. It must be owned, that the regular measure 
and diatonic scale of the Welsh music is more congenial to 
the English taste in general, and appears at first more 
natural to experienced musicians than those of the Irish and 
Scotch. Welsh music not only solicits an accompaniment ; 
but, being chiefly composed for the harp, is usuaUy found 
with one ; and, indeedj in harp tunes, there are often solo 
passages for the bass as well as for the treble. It often re- 
sembles the scientific music of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries ; and there is, I believe, no probability that this 
degree of refinement was an introduction of later times." 

Further on, he continues : — 

" The military music of the Welsh seems superior to that 
of any other nation, In the German marches, the models of 
the English, most of the passages are noisy, interspersed with 
others that are trifling, and even vulgar. In those of France 
also there is much noise, togetlier with chromatic and other 
scientific passages. The Scotch Highland marches, called 
Ports, are wild warbles, Mdiich might (and^ indeed, upon many 
occasions did, in a remarkable degree) inspire courage, but 
which could not answer the purpose of regulating the steps. 
But in the Welsh marches, ' The March of the Men of Har- 
lech', ' The Älarch of tlie Men of Glamorgan', and also a tune 
called ' Come to Battle^ there is not too much noise, nor is 
there vulgarity nor yet misplaced science. They have a 
suffìciency of rhythm without its injuring the dignified 
character of the whole, which, to use the words of the poet, 
is — 

VOL. IL C * 


" . . . Such as rais'd 
To height of noblest temper heroes of old 
Arming to battle ; and, instead of rage, 
DeUberate valour breath'd." 

Par. Lost, Book I, line 551. 

Dr. Crotcli, in his eulogium on Welsh music, specially 
mentions military mnsic only, whereas I think he would 
have been sure to have alluded to our plaintive music, had 
he been better acquainted with such melodies as " Davydd 
y Garreg Wen" (David of the White Eock), or " The Dying 
Bard to his Harp", " Morva Ehuddlan" (The Plain of Ehudd- 
lan), " Torriad y Dydd" (The Dawn of Day), and many others 
of the kind. I consider their great fondness for the minor 
key to be a very marhed characteristic of the Welsh people. 
Some writers have attributed this peculiarity to the iníluence 
of the circumstances under which their music was composed ; 
but, inasmuch as the same tendency exists in the present 
day, after centuries of peace and prosperity, I am inclined to 
lay it to the strength of the emotional feelings of the Welsh 
as a people ; for I have frequently witnessed their being so 
touched by the performance of one of their own plaÌDtive 
melodies, as to shed a tear of delight, — even in the presence 
of others, of a different nationality, who did not appear to 
have been afíected in the same degree. Nor are our pastoral 
melodies less worthy of admiration, — their varied character- 
istics being equally striking. 

The Eisteddvodau have afíbrded the greatest encourage- 
ment to the study of music and poetry ; and the contests on 
those occasions have been the means of recognising real 
merit, and of suppressing mediocrity. The result being, that 
music occupies a mucli more elevated position in the Princi- 
pality at the present time than it has ever done at any former 
period. In proof of this, it is only necessary to call attention 


to the wonderful progress raade in choral singing alone, and 
to the great number of choral societies formed throughout 
the Principality. It wouhl hardly be credited that, at an 
Eisteddvod held at Abergavenny on Easter Monday, 1874, 
as many as ten choirs, each niimbering, on an average, be- 
tween four and five hundred — making a total of between four 
and five thousand voices — competed for a prize of a hundred 
pounds ; and, as one of the adjudicators upon the occasion, I 
have no hesitation in stating their singing was in no way in- 
ferior to that of the choir which came up to London in 1872, 
and successfully competed for the prize of a thousand pounds 
at the Crystal Palace. I believe I am correct in saying that 
the ten choirs belonged to ahnost the immediate neighbour- 
hood of Abergavenny ; in every case Avithin a radius of twenty 

What other country in Europe, of the extent of Wales, can 
boast of as much activity in the cause of music ? The con- 
sequence is, that our choirs carry everything before them; 
our young vocalists carry ofí' the scholarships at the principal 
institution of this country, and perhaps of Europe, — the 
Royal Academy of Music ; our musicians ar6 beginning to 
take their musical degrees at the great Universities of the 
Empire ; we have established a University of our own in the 
Principality, and musical education has been inchided in its 

We are thus, I trust, proving ourselves worthy descendants 
of the bards and minstrels from whom we have inherited 
THE National Music of Wales. 

[The foregoing paper was read by Mr. Thomas before the 
Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion on the 13th of March, 
1878, in the Music Hall of the Êoyal Academy. — Ed.] 

G 2 


Gan y parch. john blacrwell. 

GoRPH\ATS Don ! dylifa ^n llonydd, 
Paid a digio ^rrth y creigydd ; 
Y mae Anian yn noswylio, 
Pam y byddi di yn effro ? 
Dwnd^^T daear sydd yn darfod, — 
Cysga dithan ar dy dywod. 

Gorphw}^s Fôr ! Mae ar dy lasdon 
Un yn dwyn serchiadau 'nghalon ; 
Nid ei ran yw bywyd segur, 
Ar dy lifiant mae ei lafur ; 
Bydd dda wrtho, Fôr diddarfod, 
Cysga 'n dawel ar dy dywod. 

Paid a gTwgnach, bydd yn ddiddig, 
Dyro ffrwyn ya mhen dy gesig 
A pha esgus iti fPromi ? 
Nid oes g^ynt yn mrig y Uwyni ; 
Tyr'd a bad fy ngŵr i'r diddos 
Cyn cysgodion dwfn y ceunos. 

lawn i wraig yw teimlo pryder 
Pan bo 'i gŵr ar gefn y dyfnder ; 
Ond os cyffry dig dy donnau, 
Pwy a ddirnad ei theimladau ? 
bydd diiion wrtli fy mhriod, — 
Cysga ^n dawel ar dy dywod. 



Tkaxslated by THE EDITOR. 

^o J 

Eest, wave, witbin thy deeps, 

'NoT 011 augry rocks be breaking 
Twilight falls and Nature sleeps, 
Why shouldst thou be ever wahing ? 
Stillness broods o'er all the ì-ànà, — 
Sleep, then, on thy golden strand. 

Rest, O Sea ! On thy bhie w\ave, 

Tossed with ever ceaseless motion, 
Toils a spirit frank and brave, — 
Lord of all my heart's devotion ; 
Geiitly rock hini on thy breast, 
Hush him to his eveniug rest ! 

In the forest, on the pLain, 

Not a zephyr now is breathing ; 
Chafe not then, Sea ; restrain 

Thy wild waves' tumultuous seething ; 
Night is darhening o'er thy straud, 
Bear his light-winged barq^ue to land. 

Startles oft the tender wife 

As she scans the smile of Oceau ; 
In its darker hour of strife, 

"Who can tell her heart's emotion ? 
Sleep in peace, tempestuous Sea ; 
Briiig my loved one back to me ! 


Byddar ydwyt i fy yinbil, 

Fôr didostur ! ddofn dy grombil ! 

Trof at Un a all dy farchog 

Pan bo 'th donnau yn gynddeiriog ; 

Cymmer Ef fy ngŵr i'w gysgod, 

A gwna di 'n dawel ar dy dywod. 

NoTE. — The Welsh poetry of the preseut century is of two kiuds. 
The one, Cyuiric iu diction, is also Cyniric iu thought, The other, 
though siuiilar in its outward dress of lauguage aud form, draws its iuner 
life from more diversiíied and wider sources. The former, homely aud 
ofteutimes simple, is yet replete with pathos and grandeur ; while the 
latter, of a broader and more universal character, aud gathering its 
wealth from the literature aiad languages of nations, is equally rich in 
all that constitutes genuine poetry. Betweeu the beauties of the two 
kiuds, the educated Welshmau fìnds it ofteu difBcult to decide. 

Of the former, Lewis Morris ÇY Lîew) may be regarded as the rej^re- 
sentative. How beautiful, and yet how truly Welsh, is his ' Cauiad y 
Gog i Feiriouydd'! The following verses are especially a model of the 
idiomatic poetry of the lauguage : — 

" Eidion du a dyn ei did, 

Ond odid i ddyn dedwydd, 
I dorri ei g\vys ar dir ac íir 

A braenar yu y bronnydd ; 
Goreu tyn, f e 'i gvvyr y tad, 

Morwynion gwlad Merionydd, 

" Pwy sydd lân o bryd a gwedd, 

Ond rhyfedd mewn peutrefydd ? 
Pwy sy 'mliob hyswiaeth dda 

Yu gwlwn gydá 'u gilydd? 
Pwy sy 'n ymyl dwyn fy ngho'? 

Morwynion bro Meirionydd. 

" Glân yw 'r gleisiad yn y llyn, 

Nid ydyw hyn ddim newydd ; 
Glân y w 'r fronfraith yu ei thy, 

Dau daeuu ei hadenydd ; 
Glauach yw, os d'wedai 'r gwir, 

Morwynion tir Meirionydd." 


Pitiless, insatiate Sea, 

Thou but mock'st my bitter weeping ; 
There is One who rides on thee, 
And has all thy stornis in keeping ; 
He will hear me and command 
Thee to rest upon thy strand. 

Of the latter kiud of poetry, Blackwell is, perhaps, the chief expoaeut. 
While the lauguage of liis effusious is pure aud idiomatic, the thoughta 
bear all the impress of a high education and of acquaintance, not only 
with Celtic literature, but with that of other peoples and languages. He 
has ransacked the storehouses of English poetry aud trausferred uiuch 
of their wealth into his own Cymric tougue — uot in it.s crude, uudigested 
state ; but, by f usiug it in his alembic and mouldiug it iuto new forms, 
he has giveu us creationa that, retaiuing all the characteristics of their 
origiual coudition, are yet new in our Wekh literature. 

The poem before us wiU, if carefully examined, prove our assertiou. 
We must caution our readers uot to form their judgmeut of the truth 
of these remarks from the translatiou. A right opiniou can be formed 
only by an exact criticism of the original. 

The two kinds are concentred iu the poetry of Goronwy Owen, and 
in an extraordinary degree. Af ter ranging through the AYÌde fields of 
Grecian, Roman, aud English literature, he writes his strains in a purely 
Cymric idiom — fiising thought and language into one compound in his 




By the REV. ELIAS OWEN, of Ruthin. 

In tlie more secluded parts of Wales, up to a time remem- 
bered by the living, the evening devotions of the people con= 
sisted of prayers in rhyme, with the repetition of the Creed 
and Lord^s Prayer. These were usually uttered audibly in a 
reverent manner, and in a hneeling posture. One of the most 
common of these rhythmical prayers comnienced with " Mani 
wcn'. It is known as Breuddioyd Mair, Mary's Dream. I 
have collected several readings of this hymn, and, as it is 
curious, it is worth perpetuating. 

The íìrst copy of Breuddwyd Mair I met with in 1863. It 
was given me by John Parry, a shoemaker, of Aber, in Car- 
narvonshire, an intelligent nian who was fond of talhing of 
old times, which he continued to regard, notwithstanding 
modern inventions, as the " good old times". He was taught 
it by an old female neighbour forty-one years before, when 
he was a child; and she also taught him his Padar (Pater), 
tlie Lord's Prayer. But I will give his own words : — "Dyma 
i cliwi riw beth ac ni wn i ddim o ba le y tarddodd e na pliwy 
yw ei awdwr, ac a ddysgodd hen gymdoges i mi 41 mlynedd 
yn ol gydar padar iw ddweud cyn myned ir gw^ely bob nos ac 
yr oedd y pryd hynn yn beth cyffredin." He says : — " Here 
I seud you something, but I do not know whence it sj)rang, 
nor who its author was, that was taught me by an old female 
neighbour forty-one years ago, together with the 'padar, to 
say nightly before going to bed, and it was theu a common 
thing." And then he writes as follows: — 


Mara wen Fair wyt ti 'n huno ? 

Ydwf anwyl Fab yn breuddwydio. 

Be ti 'n weld yn dy f ryuddwyd ? 

Gweld dy ddal ath ddilyn ath hoelio ar y groes 

Ac un dyn dall wedi 'r fall ei dwyllo 

Yn dy bigo dau dy fron aswy, 

Y gwaed auwyl bedigedig yn llifo ; 
Gwir yw bryuddwyd mam wen Fair. 

Pwy bynag ai g^'jpo ac ai dywdo 
Uair gwaith bob nos cyn hyno 

Y breuddwyd drwg ni nyith niwed iddo, 
Tir uffern byth nis cerddo. 

I have adhered to the orthography ; in fact, have given a 
perfect copy of my friend's letter. The Welsh is tliat of Car- 
narvonshire, and this wiU acconnt for sonie of the verbal 
differences between the above and the versions that are to 
foUow. He ends his letter as follows : — "A dyna fel y bydda 
pawb ar ol dweud ei badar drosdo 3 gwaith ac yn wir i chwi 
pan y bydda y dy wydd yn oer byddwn i yn rhedeg drosdo yn 

fuan ond niae yr hen dy soíl a gwell(t) yna wedi myned ar 
dan ers dahn gan lawer ar ysbrydoedd yn gadwedig drwyr 
anhywsder;" which, rendered into Engiish, is as foUows : — 
" And thus did everyone, after repeating the Patei' noster three 
times, — and, to tell you tlie truth, when the weather was cold, 

1 ran over it pretty quickly, — but that old stubble-built and 
straw-thatched house has long since been burnt by many, 
and the souls saved tln'ough ditficulties." The concluding 
remark shows the estimation of sucli prayers by a geueration 
but one remove from that in whicli they were common. 

"Without attempting to turu these lines iuto English verse, 
1 will give a translation thereof, following the verses as given 
in Welsh : — 

Mary, mother pure, art thou asleep? 

1 am, dear Sou, I am dreaming. 

What seest thou in thy dream? 

I see thee caught, and followed, and nailed to the Cross, 


Aud oiic benighted iiian, deceived of Satan, inerciug thy left side, 
Aud thy dear, blessed blood flowiug. 

True is the dream, Mary, mother pure. 

\Vhoever it knows, aud repeats it 
Three times each night ere sleeping, 
The Avicked dreani shall uot hini hurt, 
Hell's domains shall he iie'er tread. 

Tliere is poetry in the pictiire which these lines bring be- 
fore us. Tlie Saviour sees His mother in a troubled dream ; 
and, child-like, inquires whether slie is asleep ; she, alludiug 
to the horrors caused by her dreani, informs her Son that she 
had been asleep, and that she had had a dream. Then He 
aífectionately inquires what that dream might be that caused 
her those throbs of mental pain ; and she, in answer, informs 
Him, that she, in her dream, had seen him, her dear Son, 
tahen prisoner, rudely followed by the moching crowd, 
nailed to the Cross, and His side pierced with a spear, and 
that His precious blood spurted from the cruel wound. She 
had had portrayed to her mind the whole scene of the Cruci- 
fixion. Then she is told that her dream was to be a fact. 
The picture is drawn by an artist, and the thoughts of the 
dying Saviour, which the repetition of this would suggest, 
are such as might well be our last, after a busy day's labours. 
But the latter part of the piece is greatly inferior to the 
foriner portion. 

The next version that I shall give was taken down from 
the lips of an old woman in Flintshire, a good while ago, by 
a cousin of the Eev. Canon Williams, of Llanfyllin, who hindly 
gave me a copy thereof a few months ago. It is as follows: — 

Mam wen Fair, wyt ti 'u ddeffro ? 

Nac ydw, uac ydw, f' anwyl fab. 

Yr ydwyf fi yn huno ac yn breuddwydio. 

Mam weu Fair beth a weli di 

Yn dy f reuddwyd i mi ? 


ìíie welaf dy ddilyn, dy ddal, 

Dy roi ar y groes, ar wialen wen 

Yn dy law, a choron o ddrain ar dy ben. 

Gwedi i'r Fall fawr dy dwyllo, 

Dy daro di â ffon o tau dy fron, 

Dy waed gwirion bendigedig sydd yn coUi. 

Sawl a'i d'wetto ac ai medro 
Tair gwaith cyn y'i cysgo, 
Dwy waith cyn y'i cotto, 
Breuddwyd drwg byth na thrwblo, 
Tir uffern byth na cherddo — 
Gwir yw 'r gair, amen ac amen. 
A felly fydd, 

Since tliere are so many slight differences betweeu tliis and 
the íirst, I will give a translation of this also : — ■ 

Mary, mother pure, art thou awake ? 
l"m not, I'm not, my dear Son ; 
I am sleeping and dreamiug. 

Mary, mother pure, what dost thou see 

In thy dream that coucerns Me ì 

I see Thee followed, caught, 

Placed on the Cross, a white rod 

In Thy hand, a crown of thorns on Thy head, 

After that the great Deceiver has tempted Thee, 

I see Thee pierced in Thy side, 

Thy iunoceut, blessed blood fiowiug. 

Whoever says it, aud knows it, 
Three tüues before sleepiug, 
Twice before rising, 
The bad dream will not trouble him ; 
He shall never walk hell's la,nd. 

It is true, it is true, amen and amen, 

And so it shall be. 

Both these readings are substantially the same. But the 
verbal differences are many. In the first line of eacli, the 
Yirgin is addressed as " Mam wen Fair'\ Both begin alike, 
Wen I have translated imrc, though, primarily, the word means 
white. I think I am justified in so translating it. After the 


first tliree words, tliere comes a difference. In the Aber 
rendering we have the question, " TFijt ti 'n huno?" " Âvt 
thou asleepr and in the Flintshire version it is, " Wyt ti 'n 
ddeffro?" "Art thou aivakeí" There are not two lines alike 
throughout the whole, and yet they resemble each other 
strongly. They are the same, changed by being carried along 
and learnt by heart, it is true ; but, nevertheless, they are 
one hymn. Few, in days gone by, could read, and what was 
committed to memory would be varied by each one who 
learnt it; and hence the difference of these two pieces. 
Upon comparing the language of these readings, we see that 
in the Flintshire one, the word trwUo (trouble) comes in, in- 
timating that there Engiish words were creeping in amongst 
the Welsh words, and ousting the equivalent AVelsh word. 
As a comparison of language, the differences in these render- 
ings are very interesting; but it was uot for this purpose 
tliat they were penned, and so I go on. 

The following version of " Mary's Dream" was tahen down 
from the lips of an aged man who lived ou the hill above 
Penmaenmawr, near Llangelynin old church, by Mr. Richard 
Wynne Parry. The person who repeated it was ill at the 
time, and died shortly after Mr. Parry saw him. He stated 
that everybody used it when he was a child. It is as fol- 
lows : — 

Mam wen Fair, a wyt ti 'n huno ? 

Nac wyf, fy anwyl Fab, yr wyf yn breuddwydio. 

Betli a welaist ti yn dy freuddwyd ? 

Gweled dy hel, a dy ddal, a dy ddilyn, 

L)y roddi ar y groes a'th groeshoelio ; 

Yr luddew du dall oedd y fall a dy dwyllodd, 

Gwin i borthi, dwfr i 'molchi. 

Sawl a ddywedo hon bob nos dair gwaith cyn huno, 
Dim breuddwyd drwg wua uiwed iddo. Amen. 

This, the Llaugelynin version, is more imperfect than the 


other two; but it contains one line of which they are deficientj 

viz. : — 

Gwin i bortlii, dwfr i 'molchi. 
Wine to feed, water to cleanse. 

Alluding probably to the Sacraments. 

There is also one pretty line in the Aber version which is 

not in the rest, viz. : — 

Gwir yw 'r breuddwyd mam wen Fair. 
True is the dream, Mary, mother pure. 

In the riintshire version, also, there is one thing not to 

be found in the other two, viz. : — 

Dwy waith cyn y i cotto. 
Twice before he rises, 

And this line shows that, as the day ended, so it was to be- 
gin with the repetition of the hymn — with this difference, 
however : that it was said there three times before going to 
bed, and twice iu the morning when lying on the bed. 

AU these differences show that the copies are all incom- 
plete ; but if a number large enough could be picked up, it 
would appear that one would help the other, and by-and-by 
a perfect copy might be procured. 

With one other version, I will bring Breuddwyd Mair to 
a close. The Yenerable Archdeacon Evans wrote the follow- 
ing out from memory; and, as far as it goes, it is very perfect, 
but it is only a part of the whole : — 

Breuddwyd Mair. 

Mam, wen Fair, pam rwyt ti 'n wylo? 

Nid wylo roeddwn, fy Mab, ond breuddwydio. 

Mam, wen Fair, beth oeddit yn freuddwydio ? 

Gweld dy ddal, fy Mab, a'th groeshoeUo, 

A dyn y fall, wedi dalhi a'i dwyllo, 

Yn rhoi pig ei ffon dan dy fron, 

Nes oedd dy waed sanctaidd yn llifo. 

The number of renderings of this hymn shows liow univer- 


sally it was iised ; but it is not found in Montgomeryshire, 
and possibly it had its home among the hills. 

The Eev. Canon Williams, of Llanfyllin, rememhered 
another rhythmical prayer, that I have never met with. Tlie 
reverend gentleman writes : — " When I was a small hoy, 
parish apprentices were the rule ; and I rememher that a 
little fellow used to come to the parlour door at Nant Meliden, 
and kneel down, on his way to bed, and repeat the foUowing, 
ending with T Poder : — 

' Yn enw Duw i'm gwely yr af ; 
Duw a gadwo 'r iach a'r claf ; 
Mi rof fy mlien i lawr i gysgu, 
Mi rof fy enaid i Grist lesu, 
Ac yn enw Duw mi gysgaf. 

' Pan ddelo dydd y foru 
Yn amser i mi godi, 
Rhag i'r gelyn yn ddiffael 
Gael arnaf ail i bechn.' 

There seems something defective, but this is what I recollect." 

The child's hymn is as follows : — 

In God's name to my bed I go ; 
God keep the hale and those in woe ; 
I'll lay my body down to sleep, 
I'll give my soul to Christ to keep, 
And in the name of God I'll sleep. 

The second verse is incomplete ; it contains a M^sh to be 
kept from sin on the following day. 

I now know a farmer's wife who is in the habit of rehears- 
ing the Creed in her private nightly devotions ; and, a few 
years ago, an old woman, who had seen upwards of eighty 
years, told me that she had daily said her Pader and Credo^ 

• The use of the Pader and Credo is confirmed by the following 
anecdote : — 

"An old woman of Aberdovey, while crossing the part of Cardigan 
Bay that lies between Aberystwith and Aberdovey, in an open boat. 


from infancy, and that, as long as she lived, she intended 
doing so — that she could not ahide the new-fangled ideas of 
the present days. The old lady has gone to her long resting- 
place, and ^dth her has died the old habit of repeating tlie 
Creed of an evening after the Lord's Prayer. 

I do not for a moment suppose that these peculiar forms 
of devotion belong exclusively to Wales. They are in use in 
the present day in Catholic France, with a slight difiference. 
Instead of the Saviour, the angel Gabriel is made to ques- 
tion the Yirgin. The same answers, however, are returned 
in the French as in our Welsh versious. 

In certain parts of England, too, some of these devotional 
rhymes are used with but little variation. The following is 
in common use in many parts, and answers to the boy's 
prayer in page 30 :— 

Xow I lay me do'wn to sleep, 
I pray the Lord my soul to líeejî ; 
If I fchould die before I wake, 
I pray the Lord my soul to take. 

If no other lesson is taught us by these " Devotions", they 
prove how truly the sayings and doings of ages long gone by 
are borne downwards on the stream of tradition. Eemains, 
as they are, of Eoman Catholic times, they are deserving of 
record, not only, as I have stated, for their curious character, 
but for the lesson they teach us with regard to tradition. 
They prove how accurately it hands down to our day the 
transactions and even the sayings of long centuries ago. 
Wales has renounced the faith of Eome for upwards of three 
hundred years ; and yet these echoes of her former creed are 

found the passage so stormy, as to eause her to resort to earnest prayer 
for deliverai)ce. "\N'hen she landed at the latter place, she exclaimed 
with great delight :— ^^Moliant i Dduw am y ddaear las unwaith etto; nid 
oes achos am na phadcr no chredo ar hon.' ' God be praised for the green 
earth once more. There is no need of úì\ìqt pater or credo on this.' 


stiU heard in lier mountains and valleys. We are invited, 
consequently, to give tradition tlie importance it claims at 
our hands, nor deny it the authority which narratives like 
these so strongly uphold. 


No. 2. 
Y B R A D W R. 

O gwelwch ddyn a golwg 
Isel drem, yn selu drwg, 
A thafod esmwyth ofeg, 
I^r byd yn doidyd yn deg, 
Ac amd wên ar ei enau, — 
Heb wad ef wna frad yn frau. 


Eead at tlie Mecting oftJie Brítüh Archxological Association at LìangoUen, 

Augrist 29<Ä, 1877. 

By PROFESSOR RHYS, of Oxford. 

Otiieiis may be tnisted to point oiit to tlie members of this 
learned Association the material remains of archíeological 
interest in this charniing district of Lhingollen ; bnt there is 
a sense in which tnmnli, earthworts, and cromlechs are no 
more facts than are words, and especially names. It is by 
directing attention to two or three of the tales snpplied by 
this part of the conntry, that I wonld attempt to do my 
part in welcoming this Association on its fìrst visit to North 

One might begin by dwelling on the history of some of the 
neighbotiring churches, more than one of which commemo- 
mte the names of St. Germanns and St. Bride or Bridget, 
snch as Llanarmon and Llansantífraid. One of the lessons 
to be learned from those names seems to be that there has 
been a fashion in the case of saints, as in everything else. 

Whether any of those alhided to are the ohlest names of 
the churches now so called, may be doubted ; at any rate, 
theíe are reasons for doubting that the churches called Llan- 
armon received that name during the period in which St. 
Germanus lived. But in the case of the church after wliich 
this parish is called, it is not so, for the Welsh have never 
allowed oblivion to cover the memory of the man who seems 
to have been the fìrst niissionary that laboured on the banks 
of the Dee, to turn our pagan ancestors to Christianity, and 
the name of CoUen will be remembcred as long as this place 
continues to be called Llangollen. 



This is not the time for a lesson on Welsh plionology, but 

I always feel glad of an opportunity of learning a new sound ; 
and perhaps some of those attending the meeting of the 
Association would be glad to acquire the sound of the AYelsh 

II before returning to Engiand. The directions need not be 
long. Discard the grotesque accounts of that sound in Eng- 
lish books, place your tongue in position for pronouncing l, 
and blow a good deal harder than need be for that consonant, 
then you have our II ; so long, hovvever, as you hear tlil, or 
clü, you may be sure you have not hit it_, as it is a single 
consonant and not a combination. 

To return to St. Collen, it would be needless to trouble you 
with the legends usually attached to his name ; but I would 
call your attention to one which I have never seen published 
in English. I am indebted for it to one of our best Welsli 
archaîologists, the Eev. Owen Jones, of Llandudno. The 
foUowing is the substance of a Welsh letter with which he 
favoured me about a fortnight ago : — 

" I have long been of opinion that our early Welsh legends 
are to be regarded as allegorical descriptions of bistorical 
facts ; and on one occasion, several years ago, I happened to 
be lodging at a farm house near Pentref-y-Dwfr, at the foot 
of Bwlcli-y-Ehiw-felen. In the morning the farmer, INIr. 
John Tudor, accompanied me over the Bwlch on my way to 
Llandegla, and in answer to my enquiries he related the 
foUowing legend, which he had heard when a boy engaged as 
a shepherd on the mountains there : — In some very early 
period there used to live on the top of this Bwlch a giantess, 
who used to mutilate and kill all who came that way ; at 
last, a man from the neighbouring Yale of LlaugoUen, made 
•up his mind to rid the country of her; he sharpened his 
sword in order to go to fìo;ht with her. After he had climbed 
to her court, she came out to converse with him, and tlie 
result was that they engaged in a severe combat. By and 


by tlie man succeeded iii cuttiug oíî the riglit arm of the 
giantess, but she continued to fight as strenuously as ever. 
This went on until he managed to cut ofî her left arm also, 
whereupon tlie giantess began to call aloud to Arthur iu tlie 
rock of Eglwyseg, entreating him to come to her rescue, as 
the knave was murdering her. The end, however, was that 
she was killed, and that the man hurried away to wash him- 
self clean from her blood in a spring on the mountain, which 
is to this day known as CoUen's Well. The explanation," 
continues Mr. Jones, " which I ventured to give Mr. Tudor 
was the following : — By the giantess was meant a cruel and 
oppressive system of religion, which prevailed here before 
the introduction of Christianity ; it was the missiouary who 
first brought the Gospel into those parts, and to whose 
memory Llangollen was consecrated, that was represented by 
the man who came to fight the giantess. It was with the 
sword of truth that he broke the force of her influence, 
partially at first and more completely afterwards, and in spite 
of her appeal to the secular power, here represented by 
Arthur, she was killed so as to rid the country of her violence 
and cruelty. Perhaps," adds Mr. Jones, " the legend was iu- 
vented by one of the monks of Yalle Crucis Abbey, which 
is in that neighbonrhood." 

So far his explanation is highly ingenious, as applied to 
the legend in its present form. However, I am inclined to 
think that it dates long before the time of Valle Crucis Abbey, 
and that most of the materials out of which it was constructed 
are even older than Christianity ; perhaps one might charac- 
terize it as a pagan legend fertilized by Christianity. I doubt 
whether we might venture to compare the giantess with the 
sphynx ; but if we substitute for her a dragon, we can con- 
nect it with a well-known class of legends, and at the same 
time discover a motive for the victorious slayer of the giantess 
hurrying away to a well to wash himself clean from her blood, 


for tliat may, as iii some oí' the dragon legends, have beeíi 
poisonoiis. It is hard to say, whether the reference to the 
well partakes more of the nature of a solar myth or of Chris- 
tianity, bnt certain it is that St. Collen, who by implication 
is the hero, represents Christianity. Consequently, Arthur 
appears as one who might be appealed to on the pagan side. 
This is, I am inclined to thinlc, the original character of 
Arthur as the Solar hero of Kymry and Bretons ; and it is 
easy to understand how, when they became Christians, he 
had to foUow suit, so as to become the good knight we fìnd 
him in the Mahinogion ; as such, one cannot without some 
difficulty thinli of him as paying no heed to the cries of a 
female in distress. On the whole it would seem that an 
Arthur who was neither Christian nor chivalrous was an older 
and more original character than the one pictured in medi- 
íeval romance. 

The foregoing legend probably did not stand alone. Within 
the last few days I have succeeded in coUecting a few shreds 
of a nearly parallel one at Llanberis. Between Llanberis 
church and the pass, nearly opposite the house called Cwm- 
glas, under a large stone called Y Gromlcch, on the left hand 
side as you ascend, was the abode of a giantess called Canrig 
(or Cantr'ig) Bwt, which seems to have meant Canrig the 
Stumpy, and to have indicated that her stoutness was out of 
all proportion to her stature. Now Canrig Bwt was a can- 
nibal, and es]3ecially fond of feasting on children. So when 
the man came who was destined to put an end to her, and 
challeuged her to come out and fìght, she coolly replied, 
'' Wait tiU I have scraped this young skull clean." In the 
meantime lie placed himself on the stone under wliich she 
was to come out, aud chopped off her head with his sword 
when she niade her appearance in quest of him. He is said 
to have been a criminal sentenced to death, who had tlie 
alternative of trying his Iuck in conflict with the giantess. 


and tlie narae of Canrig Biot lias come down to our time only 
as a means of friglitening naughty cliildren ; but I am not 
sure that this is a sufficient proof that her ravages were con- 
fined to infants. 

I would call your attention next to the name of the river 
yoii have lately crossed and re-crossed so frequently, theDee; 
in Welsh it is called Dijfrdiinj, a word which analyses itself 
into Dyfr-dwy, whereof the first syllable is a weakening of 
dwfr, water. But what is the other syllable ? Two answers 
are given. It is sometimes crudely guessed to be the same 
as the Welsh dii, black, which is phonetically impossible, and 
deserving of no further mention. The more popular etymo- 
logy identifies it with Welsh dwy, the feminine of dau, ' two', 
and treats the entire name as meaning the water of tv:o, that 
is of two rivers; and the two rivers supposed to form the 
Dee are pointed out in the neighbourhood of Bala. It would 
perhaps be no serious objection to this etymology, that 
Dyfrdwy would accordingiy be a name which cou.ld be lite- 
rally applied to almost all the rivers in tlie world ; but a 
little fact sufíìces to dissolve a great deal of conjecture. The 
former offers itself in one of the ways in which Giraldus 
Cambrensis spells the name of the river, namely as Deoerdoeu, 
where doeu is the same as the old Welsh doiu or duiu, the 
genitive of old Welsh diu, a god, It is not altogether un- 
known in its full form in later Welsh, as for iustance in 
dwyw-ol, diviue, now written and pronounced dwyfol ; but 
more commonly duiu or dwyiu is shortened into dwy as iu 
meiidwy, a hermit, literally serous dei : similarly an old 
name Guas-duiu, which also meaus servus dei, a]3i)ears later 
as Giuas-duy. So the phonology of Dyfrdwy is perfectly 
plain and simple, and the word would have to be regarded as 
meaning a^im dei, but for otlier evidence which makes me 
prefer treating dwy as here meaning goddess, whence Dyfrdwy 
would be aqua dea}. Who was the goddess I do not know^ 


but most probably slie was a personifìcation of tlie river. In 
later Welsh poetry tlie latter is persouifiecl under the name 
of Äcrfcn, wMch would seem to mean a war divinity, or 
simply war ; and we learn froni Giraldus, that in times when 
our ancestors and the English were at war, the Dee had still 
some traces of its divinity pr6served, as it seems to have 
been treated as the arbiter of victory and defeat : if the Dee 
ate away its eastern bank, it betokened defeat to the Eng- 
lish, and vice versa. The words alhided to occur in the 
1 Ith chapter of the second book of the Itinerarium Ramhriíe; 
tliey run thus: — "Item, ut asserunt accolee, aqua ista singulis 
mensibiis vada permutat ; et utri finium, Angliaí scilicet an 
Kambriaí, alveo relicto magis incubuerit, gentem illam eo in 
anno succumbere, et alteram pr8evalere certissimum prognos- 
ticum habent." 

Now, according to the rules of Welsli phonology, the old 
Welsh duiu, the later divyvj, stand for an early Welsh stem 
dey or dêw, which is the same whence the Eomans had their 
Dêva, and the English their Dee. It is not my intention to 
dwell on river \vorship among the Celts ; and I would merely 
refer you to a valuable paper by M. Pictet in the Bevue 
Celiique, entitled " De quelques Noms Celtiques de Eivières 
qui se lient au Culte des Eaux"j in which the learned Celtist, 
who is now no more, not only calls attention to Gallo-Eoman 
votive tablets to sucli water divinities as Dea Sequana, Dea 
Icaune, Dea Bormonia, Deus Borvo, and the like, but finds 
traces in Spain, Gaul, Britain, and Ireland of rivers bearing 
the same names as the Dee in the forms of Dëva, Dîva, 
and Divona, and nearly related ones. {Rev. Celticjue, ü, 
pp. 1-9.) 

In the same paper he notices the rivers known in Gaul as 
Matra and Matrona, that is, names intimately connected with 
the Gaulish form of the word for ' mother', and recalling the 
numberless Gaulish divinities entitled Matrcs in Gallo- 


Eoman inscriptions. This leads me to snggest a possible ex- 
plauation of tlie name of the principal point in the Clwydian 
range of hills, namely, Mocl Famau. Now moel means bald, 
without hair or without horns, and as applied to a hill it sig- 
nifìes one with a round top, such, in fact, as Moel Famau is, 
but for the unfortunate Jubilee Tower on it. Faniau is a 
regular mutation of Mamau, apparently the plural of Mam, 
' a mother', thus Mod Famau would mean the ' moel of 
mothers', which sounds, however, somewhat more indefinite 
than the majority of Welsh nanies of the kind, and suggests 
that the defìnite article here, as in so many other instances, 
has been dropped ; the name would theu in full be Moel-y- 
Famau, but that could only be a relic of the use of a dual 
number in Welsh, and should be rendered into English ' tlie 
Moel of the two Mothers'. But who were these mothers, 
whether two or more in number ? I am inclined to think 
that they were no human mothers, but imagiuary beings, 
possibly associated with, or personifications of springs of 
water rising in tlie Moel ; but whether further acquaiutance 
with the ground woiüd tend to confirm this somewhat vague 
conjecture, I am unable to say, as I have never had an oppor- 
tunity of examining it. On the other hand, it would be evi" 
dently unwise to neglect any traces in this country of cults 
wliich, it may be presumed, were once common among the 
Celts, both in the British Isles and on the Continent. 




FoLLOWiNG 011 tlie lines of GwalcJwiai's lucid historical ex- 
planation, wliich appeared iii the last niiniher of the Cymm- 
roclor, of the pnrposes of the Eisteddfod of the Past, it may 
not be nnworthy of consideration wlietlier the time has not 
aiTÌved when one of the maiu features of the Eisteddfod 
should be developed and adapted to meet an acknowledged 
want of the present day. 

As we have seen, tlie Eisteddfod originally exercised three 
functions : first, that of a legislatire assembly, for the enacting 
of laws : secondly, that of a judicial body, which interpreted 
and enforced them : thirdly, that of a learned body, which 
aimed at the advancement and eucouragement of learning, 
and notably of poetry, music, and art. By the statute of 
Ehuddlau in the reign of Edward I, the two first functions 
were absorbed by Parliament and the Courts of Justice re- 
spectively ; but the last function, for fulfiUing the duties of 
whicli no special legal provision was madcj lias never been 
superseded, and it may therefore fairly be argued that the 
powers of the Eisteddfod, qíioad hoc, still remain unrepealed 
and only in abeyance. They are, therefore, a Constitutional 
right l)elonging to the Frincipalíty. 

Some recognition has been extended from time to time 
by British Sovereigns to the National Eisteddfod of Wales, 
but the aìithoritìj of aii Eisteddfodic body has long ceased 
to exist, although the popular feeling in its favour has 

The national acceptableness, the purposes, the prevalence 


of Eisteddíbdau, indicate tliat so peculiar an institutiou should 
no longer exist without more marked recognition ; and that 
it should be enabled to carry out its mission for the benefit 
of the Principality in accordance with the advanced rec[uire- 
ments of this age. 

While costly and complex machinery of every kind is pro- 
posed or utilised for advancing the civilisation and culture of 
the Welsh people, here is at hand an admirable engine, 
capable of being utilised for the purpose. Every county, 
every town, every village even has its literary meetings 
(generally under the name of Eisteddfodau), where niusic, 
poetry, art, and literature form subjects for healthy emula- 
tion. Once or twice a year the whole culminates in a more 
imposing and general meeting under the name of Yr Eistedd- 
fod, or Yr Eisteddfod Genedlaethol, the popularity of which 
is attested by the numbers and character of those who attend, 
or who take an interest in it, either as competitors for prizes, 
adjudicators, visitors, or patrons. Such a gathering, and for 
such a purpose, as was seen last year at Wrexham, and this 
year at Carnarvon, indicates a vast amount of intellectual 
activity in which the Welsh language plays no mean part. 

Our Saxon frieuds have been told often, and told truly, 
that the English language is rapidly spreading in Wales, and 
that not a singie day-school teaches the Welsh lauguage. It 
might perhaps surprise them, were they further informed 
that, in spite of all this, there are issued in the Welsh lan- 
guage in the Principality no fewer than two quarterly and 
sixteen monthly periodicals, and thirteen weekly newspapers; 
that Welsh is now spoken by a nuniber of persons greater 
probably than in the days of the Heptarchy ; and that its 
Yocabulary is enriched daily by the addition of new words. 

These facts and statistics suíîìciently indicate a reading 
public in Wales ; and not only is this the case in the present 
day, but the whole nation is pautiug for improvement, and 


looking out for some liaiid tliat will guide tliis intellectual 

actÌYÌty wliicli finds its vent througli the mediura of the 

"Welsh language. That ruling power should be found in the 

Eisteddfod, for, as has been W'ell said by a German writer 

(Möser in his OsncibrücTc History), all laws should be the out- 

come, not of abstract theories, but of the history of a people ; 

and that institution which has so deep a hold on the 

hearts of the Cymry is surely best adapted to guide their 


The Eisteddfod is the natural as well as the national insti- 

tution of Wales. " The study of modern history", says 

Shelley,^' "is the study of kings, financiers, statesmen, and 

priests. That of the history of ancient Greece is the study 

of legislators, philosophers, and poets : it is the history of 

men, compared with the history of titles." And to this 

latter description the Eisteddfod may proudly lay claim. High 

as the clamouT may rise outside of political and religious 

strife — so highj alas ! as almost to justify the old proverb, 

" Ni bydd dyun dau Gymro" — within her walls it is hushed, 

and men are content to forget their dift'ereuces for a time, 

that each may sprinhle his incense on the altars of those 

" Sisters of the sacred well 
That from beneath the feet of Jove doth spring." 

If the Eisteddfod possesses such powers when, by those out- 
side the Principality, its existence tiU lately has only been 
recognised to be scofíed at, what would not be its influence 
when surrounded by the prestige of State authority ? 

And here may be pointed out the one great disadvantage 
under which the Eisteddfod labours. It lacks one chief 
element of success — autlwrity. Any body of men, in any 
part of Wales, may claim Eisteddfodic powers. They may 
forthwith coUect funds, announce prizes, hold meetings, and 

1 Fragment of an essay on the literature, arts, and mauners of the 


confer rewards, ìrrespective of their qiialifications for the 
task. That under these circumstances so mucli unanimity 
should reign, and so many qualified persons should be willing 
to undertate Eisteddfodic duties, is highly creditable to the 
nation, and forms a just claini for the extension and consoli- 
dation of the power of the Eisteddfod. 

It is not surprising that under the disadvantages we have 
mentioned, Eisteddfod committees should become too local in 
their management, and too comniercial in their actions. 
Local bodies have a tendency to identify the interests of 
kno\\ledge with the commercial interests of their own town 
or locality. They are more anxious to attract visitors, in 
order to cover the pecuniary risks that they guarantee, than 
to advance any permanent object embraced within the scope 
of an Eisteddfod proper. Nor is it to be supposed that tlie 
world will be ready to bow to such a self-elected body, 
changing as the scene changes. Dissatisfaction with, and 
disputes concerning, the adjudications and the disposal of 
surplus funds are too often the unfortunate but unavoidable 
results of the present system. 

To sum up these arguments. If the Eisteddfod of the pre- 
sent, in the hands of varying and self-constituted bodies with 
no authority and very little responsibility, is a useful and a 
popular institution, how much more so might be the 
Eisteddfod of the future, with disorder reduced to order, 
anarchy to government, isolated efforts to centralisation ? 

NiD DA, LLE BO GWELL. Many of the warmest friends of 
the Eisteddfod have long felt the force of this proverb,and have 
directed their efforts to tlie creation of a permanent and 
central committee. 

The time is ripe for change : for a change that shall give 
fuU effect to our aspirations, But how can this be accom- 
plished ? Surely, by giving aiUhoritìj to the Eisteddfod. We 
conceive that this result might be brought about as follows. 


The Eisteddfod might be iucorporated as a society imder a 
royal charter, for the performance of the third function already 
alluded to, viz., the encouragemeut of poetry, music, and art 
(understanding art in its widest sense). 

Suíficient permanent funds should be provided for worknig 
the machinery. A constitution, foUowiug on historical lines 
as far as possible, should be drawn up, defining the duties 
and powers of the Eisteddíbd and regulating the appointment 
of its central governing body. 

This governing body or couucil should be carefiúly choseu 
from individuals of marh sujjìcient to give weight to their 
decisions. On Cj[uestions of music and philology there are 
certain Welsh names that at once present themselves, whose 
owners would anywhere be accepted as fully competent and 
Yaluable members of such a councü. Nor would it probably 
be difticult in time to form a Ford Gron, a round table, capable 
of doino- good and honest service to the cause of Welsh litei-a- 
ture generally. Other branches of literature might also be 
brought, for the benefit of Wales, within the scope of tlie 
Eisteddfodic Council : and there is no fear that tlie task of 
finding competent members of the couucü or worthy adjudi- 
cators woidd prove difficult, with the whole world to clioose 
from. The London or Scotch Universities (or any of the 
bodies incorporated for special objects) have never been at a 
loss for persons able to perform simUar duties, while they 
have money to command their services. 

In this way security woiüd be taken that the prizes and 
degrees conferred — the mintmarks of approval — should guar- 
antee the work as standard gold, above suspiciou (and this 
wüuld necessarily be the case if competent adjudicators were 
elected by the central authority). 

The secoud point to be carefully considered is, that room 
should be left witliin these safeguards for the play of that 
liberty eujoyed by local committees in the selection of the 


place for holding tlie Eisteddfod, and even the method of con- 
ducting it, and the management (or mismanagement) of local 

Nor (and surely this is important) should the worhing 
man be discouraged — that class which in Wales takes so unique 
an interest in Eisteddfodau. The standard of excellence 
in the republic of letters is high and difficult of attainraent 
by those who earn their daily liread by the labonr of their 
hands. Bearing also in view tlie important fact that every 
degTee conferred should be worthily conferred, and no sham, 
the Eisteddfodic Council might institute degrees of various 
order, so giviug to all merit due recognition, whether it flou- 
rish in sunshine or in shadow. 

Tlius, whether iu poetry, in art, in science, in classical or 
modern language, in mathematics or philology (for all these 
and more might be subjects for competition), the distinction 
given would be what it professed to be. In this way, room 
would be left for the action of the general and local bodies 
respectively. The distinction of higher and lower degrees 
was not imhnown to the historic Eisteddfod : witness the 
grades of Druid, Bard and Ovate : aud, coming from the 
source which we have indicated, there would be no gainsaying 

An authoritative centre— such a centre as would command 
at once the confidence of scholars and of the country — is an 
absolute necessity. 

It is obvious therefore that some organised body must be 
appointed to act with effect in discussing and defiuing the 
constitution of the Eisteddfod of tlie future, its objects and 
duties, its general and local action : in a word, in furthering 
the appointment of a properly constituted Eisteddfod autho- 
rity. By such a proceeding, order would arise out of chaos, 
real merit be honoured, pretentiousness discouraged, learning 
promoted, Welsh literature receive due recognition ; and 


last, but hy no means least, care woiild be taken of tlie Eistedd- 
fod excliequer, that funds might not Le laching for its various 
purposes. Obtaining this, Wales would obtain what it has 
long sought. Such a body responsible for the collection and 
employment of public and private funds would thus inspire 

It would be presumptuous to attempt detaii or to lay down 
dogmatically what range of subjects shouM be embraced by 
the Eisteddfod, and whether its sweep should be broader or 
narrower than at present. Enough, if the writers have suc- 
ceeded in indicating a real necessity in connexion with our 
country's peculiar and honoured institution ; and in suggest- 
ing that some organised body would best set about its con- 

It wiU be for such a body as we ]iave indicated to coii- 
sider, as a preliminary step, the desirability of seeking a 
Eoyal Commission, which should make enquiries and collect 
into one focus information as to the requirements and claims 
of the Principality, the ancient uses of the Eisteddfod, and its 
adaptability to modern purposes : or whether it would be 
better, on the otlier liand, to seek at once a Eoyal Charter of 
Incorporation, from which would arise a duly constituted 
body, having authority, " a local habitation and a name." 


L E T T E R S 



(^Continued from Vol. í, p. 170.) 


" Penbiyn, June 22nd, 1760. 

" Dear Sir, — We have flies that are begot, come to perfec- 
tion and play, engender tlieir kind, and lay their eggs and 
die in one day, and the next day a new brood comes, and 
goes on the same for the whole snmmer, generation after 
geueration ; and these do as much, and to as much purpose, 
as most of us that annoy and distress one another, as if we 
were to live for ever. How many ages of those ílies is it 
since I have heard from you and my little ones ? Is your 
library almost íìnislied ? and when will you put up the books ? 
God send that it is not iU-timed, for the taste of our age 
seems to be quite otherwise. If you had lived in the time 
of the Primitive Christians, some good might have been ex- 
pected from such a thing, and the Church would have sainted 
you for it ; but those days are over, and the like of them will 
never be, for our shepherds are turned wolves and foxes, and 
my son, perhaps, will see your successor incaj)able of reading 
the title pages of the books you coUect. Thus our schemes, 
though ever so well founded, are very narrow and shallow ; 
but an active mind must be doing of something, let it end 
where it will. Most of the ancient philosophers (except 


Diogenes tlie Cynic) were lovers of society, and livecl among 
tlie thickest of their fellow-creatnres, and iniparted their 
knowledge readily, as if you had lived at Aherystwith and 
taught tlie inhabitants of that jDlace common civility and 
letters : few of them, or none, have run to the tops of moun- 
tains to instruct sheep and deer. Among the first Christians 
indeed, there were a snrly kind of people who affected retire- 
ment and lived in caves, but they seldom did any good, ex- 
cept what they did to themselves in mortifying the flesh. 
Am not I a silly fellow for attempting to persuade you to 
leave Ystrad Meurig, and to live at Aberystwith ? that was 
my scheme, but I am afraid to no purpose, for you seem to be 
like the plant Chameemoras, who m'ÌLL live nowhere but on 
the top of Snowdon. My messenger who comes with shirts 
for the boys calls on me for the letter, and says it will be too 
late to stay longer. In my last meeting with Teuan Fardd I 
liave convinced him thaf it is in vain for him to attempt 
Nennius until he has a better copy than Archbishop üsher's 
Nennius in Llauuerch library, which is far from being cor- 
rect, and will lead the world into intolerable errors. Nothing 
will do it but \Lv. Robert Yaughan of Hengwrt's copy, which 
hath been compared with all the ancient copies in the public 
libraries, the Cotton, Bodleian, Cambridge, the King's Library, 
and with L^sher's own transcript from eleven ]MSS. ; but the 
difílculty is to come at it, for Mr. Yaughan will suffer no man 
to see it, though his father hath suffered me to make some 
extracts out of it, which is the test I have to try all other 
copies by. That was the only man that understood Nennius, 
and that knew wliat he wrote about him, I mean Mr. Eobert 
Yaughan, who was cotemporary with L^sher. If you, who 
have so critical a knowledge of the Latin tongue, would take 
such a translation in hand, it would make you immortal, and 
the history loudly calls to be turned into EngLish, being jnst 
expiring ; but you have a thousand excuses, though indolence 


is tlie real reason. I conelude tliis witli my respects to your 
íìreside, aud am, " Dear Sir, 

" Your Friend and Servant, 

" Lewis Mor.pjs." 

" Peubryn, July 4tb, 1760. 

" Dear Sir, — I haye yours of Dygwyl ffair fadr, witli Dr. 
Pliilipps' and Mr. Pegge's letters, whicli made me stare, and 
I now return them. Their compliments are so high, that 
they made me turn about like the drunken woman, whose 
cloaths had been changed whüe asleep, and I asked myself, 
Ai fi ydT^yf fi ? doubting much whether the ch'aracter fits me. 
Besides, there is an old proverb among us wliich says, ' A 
fynno glod bid farw'. According to this, either I am dead, or 
this is no praise. Last night I had no sleep, a summer cough 
(the worst of coughs) has seized me, and brought an inflam- 
mation of the pleura, whieh has been partly removed by 
bleeding, but am stiU very bad. Ped fai waeth i neb araü 
ond fy eppil fy hun. 

'•' Our frieud leuan has sent me some of Aneurin's works 
that is worth its weight in gold. bishops, princes, ye 
fat men of the land, why suffer ye that man to starve ? Do 
not flinch from your part of attaching Camden, or you mìU 
have a chance of being shot in the head. I will send you an 
account, when 1 have leisure, of some parts of his body that 
are not invulnerable, not about his heels, but about his head, 
Yours is the first edition of him, and therefore is the best, for 
there you have the author in his native simplicity before he 
hath called allies to his assistance. Have good courage, nid 
oedd ond dyn fal dyn arall. Pwy ond Dewi Fardd sy 'n dyfod 
ar llythyr hwn, ar ryw neges i leuan, ag i edrych noethni ^r 
wlad mae 'n debyg. 

"Mr. Pegge and Dr. Philipps are welcome to copy my 

voL. n. E 


letters, provided no use is made of them without my consent. 
During a correspondence of about two years I had with the 
late Mr. Carte, I had some disputes with him about our 
antiquities. He has printed in his book of the History of 
England whole paragraplis out of my letters, and never owned 
but one from whence he got the matter (which is in page 31), 
and even that without my consent or knowledge. It is dan- 
gerous to correspond with such antiq[uaries ; but what is 
worse, some points which he had given up in his letters to 
me, he maintains in his book, to the dishonour of our Ancient 
Britons, and indeed to his own shame. I have annotations 
upon my interleaved British copy of Tyssilio, but I despair 
ever to have health to undertahe a translation of it ; besides 
that, my collection of Celtic Remains, to wliich T am ahnost 
intirely devoted, keeps me from everything else ; and to 
encourage leuan to give us an English translation of Nennius 
is my great ambition. I am sure that neither Leland, Cam- 
den, Sehlen, Usher, Sir Simon D'Ewes, Dr. Gale, nor any of 
the moderns, ever understood him, though tliey have been all 
beating about the bush. All that we want is the great 
Usher's genuine transcript, which he collated with eleven 
MSS. We have a coj^y of it ; but it is not correct. 

" Yours siucerely, 

"Lewis Morris." 

" Penbryn, July 6th, 1760. 

" Dear Sir, — Yours wrote yesterday I received by Dewi 
Ddifardd. He is but short indeed ; ond rhaid i'r adar mân 
gael bwyd. He takes his flight to-morrow. Yea, yea, watch 
Camden, and give him a knock now and then when lie slips. 
If I have a little leisure next week I shall send you a few 
notes on liim for your guidance. Ask Mr. Pegge questions 
by all means, and exert yourself Knowledge is not a native 


plant of any one countiy more tlian anotlier : it may be in 
your closet as well as Mr. Pegge's. Pray, let me see Morgan 
Herbert's epitapli. Let me also into the secret of the dispute 
you have about some passages in Lillÿs Grammar, though I 
may not understand such high things. Well, now comes the 
jest of the cause. Lewis and John's mother longs for a sight 
of her sons for four days. Her pretence is, that they want 
to be patched and mended ; but they had a sort of promise 
to come when the fruit grew ripe, and in the shearing season, 
when feasting goes on after the manner of the old patriarchs ; 
and lo, here are horses to bring them this very day. You'll 
think it expressly agaiust the rules of the Christian religion 
to send for tliem on the seventh day ; but in the time of the 
primitive Christians they were not so nice, as I fìnd by the 
Gododin, where Aneurin makes one of the greatest characters 
of his northern heroes in Cattraeth do it. 

" Yn lladd Saesson y seithfed dydd. 
" My cough is a little better to day. I had but three fìts 
of it last night. " I am, yours sincerely, 

"Leavis Morris." 

"Penbryn, July 13th, 1760. 
" Dear Sir, — The boys return after a stay of four days, and 
two days their mother kept them, for which I am not ac- 
countable : for though Scripture and the Church say man 
and wife are one, yet, if ever you are blessed with a wife, 
you will find yourselves to be two most commonly, esi^ecially 
in disputes about children. The bearer will bring me Morgan 
Herbert's epitaph, I suppose, and the song. Usher did not 
understand Nenuius, because he was a Welchman; not be- 
cause he wanted learning, &c. You say you are lazy, but 
that you are resolved to be lionest in your calling. You may 
read Camden and give me a little help, and be honest too. 

E 2 


Well, I liaye now in niy thoughts to write a letter, to be sent 
to Dr. Philipps and Mr. Pegge, by way of reprisals. It is 
not fair I should alM'ays be on the defence. It is about some 
Saxon affair. If coughing and death do not interfere you 
shall have it soon. I am really very bad as to my health, 
and jogg on by mere dint of strength of spirits only. Many 
an heroe would liave sunk under such inürmities. If the 
materials of my body wiU hold out, I am now in a fit humour 
to write what I know of natural philosophy and antiquities : 
for I am not fit for any active part of life, which requires 
strength and motion. For God's sake, make noexcuses. The 
world wants to know what you know, and are capable of 
knowing iii a more exquisite manner than others. You that 
are arm^d with aU manner of weapons can fight with more 
effect than a poor fellow with twcca carn corn, let him be 
ever so wiUing. Such a one am I. God be with you. 

" I am, yours sincerely, 

" Lewis Morpjs." 

" Penbryn, July 27th, 1760. 
" Dear Sir, — By the nature of things I expected this sum- 
mer, after my iUness last winter, to be in tolerable health; 
but so it is that, considering everything, I am reaUy worse 
than ever. I cannot sit down for haU an hour to write ; I 
cannot walk about for want of breath. Tho' I endeavour to be 
with my haymakers hitherto, I can scarce be said to exist 
'anywhere, and live merely by art. This is my case. The 
Herbert inscription was designed by a good hand, but mur- 
dered either by the stonecutter or the schoolmaster that 
copied it. I thank you for your translation of it. The ori- 
ginal should be, I think, as I wrote it in the inclosed copy. 
Pray, let me liear how far you have gone with Camden. 

" I am, yours, whilst 

" Lewis Moreis." 


" Peiibiyn, July 28tli, 1760. 
"Dear Sir, — Tlie pleasure I had in meeting witli agreement 
of sentiments with mine in perusing Dr. Philipps and Mr. 
Pegge's letters hath produced tliis. They had no occasion to 
apologize for tahing copies of mine provided they go no 
fartlier. What I wrote in my late letters was an answer to 
some douhts of theirs about our ancient British anticj[uities, 
which was inth-ely within miue own sphere, and within my 
depth, having made it my study for many years, and conse- 
quently, I ought to be a tolerable master of it, haviug come 
at such materials and opportunities as but few men have met 
with, some lucky accidents conspiring to briug these things 
together. But as for my performing what they so earnestly 
wish — a translation of Tyssilios British History — it is very 
uncertain, tlio' I have been providing materials this 35 years, 
I thank Mr. Pegge for his hint about the giants. What I write 
uow is, in a manner, out of my deptli, and I apply to them 
as men of learning, as 1 was applied to as a Cambrian anti- 
quary. I have met with I think a British MS., a very great 
curiosity, whicli regards the Engiish more than the Welsh. 
Tlie Teutonic language and its branches is what I never made 
my study, except by a transient view of it, as it is pretty 
much mixed in ancient time with the Celtic. The Celtic 
in all its branches, the Welsh, Erse, Armoric and Cornish, 
has been my study froni my childhood, and for which I have 
the strongest inclination ; but I never had proper materials 
or opportunities to study the Teutonic ; and the slips of Mr. 
Camden, and his followers, who pretended to etymologize the 
British tongue, is a sufficieut caveat for me not to meddle 
or pretend to any extraordinary hnowledge in the Saxou, 
Danish, or any branch of the Teutonic lauguage, which I do 
not perfectly understand. This must be left to the learned 
English, the descendants of the Saxons, Danes, and Normans, 
M^ho have MSS. iu pleuty of the Teutonic lauguage iu tliüir 


public libraries, aud Üie observatious of learued meu upon 

them, which I never saw. This is an advautage the Engiish 

autiquaries have : they are many iu number, and they have 

materials in great plenty, as far back as the time of Bede, 

who I reckon as their first author of whom we can be certain. 

My meeting with this ^IS., of which I shall give some ac- 

count by and bye, confirms me in the opinion I have been 

loug of, that the people of Germauy, and all the North about 

the Baltic, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, spoke the same lan- 

guage (the Teutouic), except a colouy of Cimbrians, that 

once inliabited the Cimbric Ohersonuesus, who in process of 

time mixed with our uncoucj[uered North Albauian Britons, 

and incorporated themselves together under tlie name of 

Brython, (called) by Latin writers, Picti, by the English 

called Pights, and by the Welsh, Piclitiaid, but by their 

own people, Brython, derived from the Celtic Brith, parti- 

cularised as their own poet Myrddin ap Morfryn, the Cale- 

donian testifies — 

' Brython dros Saesson Brithwyr ai medd'. 

Hoianan Myrddin. 

Our Tyssilio also gives ns a hint of this incorporation, and 
the reason of it, as doth the Triades, so that the Pictish 
tongue, the language of these Cimbrian sea-rovers was Celtic, 
and nearly related to the British, tho' Bede, who was a 
stranger to both, thought otherwise ; but the rest of the 
nations about the Baltic were certaiuly Teutous, and were, 
as we fiud in old MSS., called by the Britons Llychlymwyr, 
i.e., Llychlyn men, aud so to this day we, iu Wales, call tlie 
iuhabitants of Norway and Sweden ; and the Irish call them 
Lochlonnach ; but the ancient Irish made a distinction be- 
tween some of the sea-rovers which came from those parts. 
The Danes they called Dubhlochlonnach, i.e., Black Lochlyn 
men, aud some other nation, the Finlauders perhaps, Fion- 
lochlonnach, i.c, White Lochlyn nieu. The word Loclüon- 


nacli amoiig tlie Irish signifies also a mariner in general; 
biit tlieir antiquaries don't know tlie derivation of it to be 
from tliose Lochlyn men's being formerly masters of the sea ; 
and this also gi\^es a reason why our old English writers calls 
tbe Danes the Black Nation, and the Black Army. Llychlyn 
is an ancient British word, compounded of Lewch and Llyn. 
Lum in Irish is standing water ; in Welsh, a lake or pool is 
called Llynn, so that the meaning of Llychlyn amoug tlie 
Gwyddelian Britons (now Irisli), the aborigiues of Britain, 
was a sea-lake ; and among the Britons who succeeded them 
here, the Lake of Lakes, which comes much to the same 
purpose, a proper name enough for the Baltic. You know 
that in the beginning of the llth century, Canutus, king of 
Denmark, who was called in his own language Cnut, after 
many years infesting the coast, and making use of the usual 
arts of princes, conquered England, and became king of Eng- 
land, Denmark, and ISTorway, and after many violent proceed- 
ings to fix liimself on the throne, thought it the safest way 
to please the people,to encourage the country^s religion. About 
the year 1030 he went to Eome, bribed the Pope with vast 
presents, and came to England to do the same by his sons, 
the bishops and abbots, by heaping gifts of lands upon tliem 
out of other men's estates, to wash away his former sins. I 
think there can be little doubt that he advanced his own 
friends to the profitable places in the Church, or that he 
propagated and encouraged the use of his own language, the 
Danish, in England. If there was a considerable difference 
between that dialect of the Teutonic and the Saxon, and one 
would think that the grants he made to the churches were 
wrote in the Danish language, these things are natural enough 
to an aspiring prince, who settled himself by bloodshed and 
force. Some learned men think that Danes and Normans, 
or Northmen, signified originally the same people, and it is 
said that Eollo, the Dane or Norman, first gave name to the 

56 ■ LETTERS. 

coiintiy called Normandy, in France, abont the year A.D. 900. 
But the Pictish Poet ]\Iyrddin mentions Northmyn, i.e., Nor- 
mans, abont the Baltic, about 300 years before this, and calls 
their country Normandi. 

' Pan ddyffo Northmyn ar lydan lynn'. 

Hoianan Myrddin. 

i.e., when Normans or Northmen came from the broad lahe, 
&c. By all which, it seems that the nations who from time 
to time infested Britain from the North above the Baltic, 
whether Danes, Norwegians, Frisians, Angles, Jutes, or 
Saxons, M'ere all Teutons or Northmyn, and spolce the sanie 
language, tlio' differing in dialects, which, as I take it, was 
not yery different from our present English in its pronuncia- 
tion. These things premised, I come to give an account of 
the MS. I mentioned. A friend of mine is in possession of 
a Latin MS. of the Four Gospels, on velkim, wrote in a 
most beautiful hand in the ancient British letter, now com- 
monly called the Saxon letter. The MS. seems to me to be 
as okl as St. Hierome's time, with whose version, as in print, 
I find it to agree in most places. There is a note in it, in 
capital letters, in Latin, which loohs but modern in com- 
parison to the book, signifying that it was expounded by 
Mseielbrith Macdurnam, and the book was given by ^thel- 
stan, king of the Anglo-Saxons, to the Church of Canterbury; 
and in the margin, in (I tliinh) a stiU more modern hand in 
figures, -f- 925, which probably was inserted about the loth 
century, when figures were in use. I take the book to have 
belonged originally to the Britons, not only on account of the 
character (the same letters being to be seen on our ancient 
tomb stoncs in "Wales, erected before the Saxons had the use 
of letters), bnt also because Maeielbrith Macdurn was also a 
Briton, as plainly appears by his name ; and you may see in 
some cojDÌes of Gildas's Nennius that the Cambro-British 
kings used, on the first coming of the Saxons, the appellation 


of Mac, instead of "Ap and Map, tlio' now entirely disused in 
Wales, and kept only in North Britain aud Ireland (see 
Nennius, chap. 53, Gale's edition), tho' of late suult iuto the 
suruame there, as Macpherson, Macdonald, &c., so Ap aud 
Map is also generally lost of late iu Wales in the surnames 
among the gentry of Pryse ap Rhys, Powel for ap Howel, &c. 
Pbr the better apprehending this affair, I shall insert here the 
said note faithfully copied with my own haud out of the said 
MS., every letter in its form : — 






This note seems to be iu the Saxou character used iu the 
tiuie of Athelstaue; aud that the Saxons had not taken as yet 
the old British letter (now called Saxon), tho' they had all or 
most of the Loegriau British libraries in their possessiou, 
which they found iu the great schools aud coUeges on their 
couquest, or as mauy of them as they iii their fìrst blind 
fury did uot destroy. I also think that Ma3Ìelbrith Mac- 
durnam was not the writer of this note, but tliat it was some 
Saxou after tlie book was given by Athelstane to the Churcli 
of Canterbury, aud who knew that it had been in tlie hauds 
of Ma3Ìelbrith, aud that he had WTote some explauations in 
the margiu of the text. Now, that this may be better under- 
stood, the manuscript hath neither chapter nor verses, but 
there are refereuces from oue Gospel to another in the margin 
in red letters, done, I think with a peucil, in a good haud, but 
a little different frora the l)ook, always iuclosed tlius : — 


which I take to be explanations or dogmas of Mseielbrith 
mentioned in this note. The meaning of which note I sup- 
pose is this, Mseielbrith, the son of Durnan, doth worthily 
expound this text by references, &c., but Athelstane, king 
and ruler of the Anglo-Saxons, makes a present of the book 
to the Metropolitan Church of Canterbury for ever. Here I 
call to my aid Dr. Philipps, Mr. Pegge, and yourself : for I 
fairly confess I don't know what to make of the words per 
tricjuadrum Dominum. So much for the note about Maeiel- 
brith and Athelstane. Now to other matters in the said 
MS. In this letter I have given it as my opinion that the 
character in which Maeielbrith's note is wrote was the Saxon 
letter used by the monks of Canterbury in the time of Athel- 
stane, about a.d. 900, and I suppose since the time of Augus- 
tine, uuder Pope Gregory ; but I find that the old British 
letter (the character in which the MS. of the four Gospels 
was wrote) was, about a hundred years after this, taken in, 
not only by the Saxons, but by the Danes also, for there are 
some grants and instruments wrote about the year 1035, after 
King Canute had returned from Eome, on the void leaves in 
this MS. in this very character, called since, Saxon ; and 
whether tlie language of this grant is Saxon or Danish, if 
tliere was any difference betweeu them, I am yet to learn, 
and hope to be informed by your learned correspondents. I 
think 1 find some words in Cnut's grant which I don't re- 
member to have met with in Saxon books ; but I have not 
sufíicient knowledge in the Teutonic language and its branches 
as to pretend to be any judge in the matter. Here followeth 
a copy of one of those grants which Cnut made to Christ 
Church in Canterbury, and which I presume was entered in 
this MS. of the Gospels, to give it the greater solemnity : — 

Cnut cyncj jpet ealle mine by mine eoplaf 7 
mine jepepan on selcepe fcij-epe a:'];elno^ aj-ceb 
jìle hiped aet cpifcef, &c. 


Cnut cyneg gret ealle mine B and mine eorlas and raine 
gereffan on sel cere scire the JEtlielnoth arcet and se hired 
£eet cristes eyrceanland habbath Freondliec, and ie cythe 
eow that ic geunan hî that he beo his saca and socna wyrthe 
and gruth brycas and hamscone and forstealas and Infanges 
tlieoffes and flymena fyrmthe offer his agene meu Binnam 
Bysig and Butan and offer Crystes Cyrcean and offer swa 
Stala thegna swa hic him to leetun heebbe, and ic nelle that 
íenig mann aht theeron teo buton he and his wicneras for 
than ic híebbe Criste halge rihta forgifen minre Sawle to 
ecare alysendness ac ic nella that íeftve senig man this 
al)recca be minum freondscipe. 

" If your correspondents wiU favour me with an English 
transhition, word for word, of the above grant, ' I Cnut, 
king, greet all my bishops, and my earls, and my rives,' &c., 
and also their opinion about Mseielbrith's note, and the other 
doubts of mine in this letter, I shall give them a further 
account of the MS., and of the other instruments in it. 

" I am, yours sincerely, 

" Lewis Moeris." 

" Penbryn, August Ist, 1760. 

"Dear Sir, — I received yours of the 28th ulto.,and happeued 
to read that part of it to my wife that related to the Wells; 
it made such an impression on her that she has not given me 
a minute's rest till I promised to go there next. Perhaps 
(says she) Dr. Ptichards, as he was so good as to prescribe 
gratis, may be so good as to meet you at Llan Drindod and 
see that you drink the waters, and that you do not drink too 
much strong artificial liquors. Well, but without johing, I 
am resolved to go there, and, please God, I intend to set out 
either Tuesday or Wednesday after dinner, and to be at D. 


Jones's, of Cwmystwyth, that night. Who do you thiiik, of 
all the men in the worhl, offered his services to come with 
me and keep me company there ? ISTo less a man than Justice 
Griffiths, who dined here yesterday. ISTow it happened in 
those days that a great fair is kept on the hills of Ehos, and 
most colleges and schools in those parts keep a sort of a 
carnival during the week this fair falls upon. My wife, who 
is my director in these deep things, says it is a fact, and that 
Mr. Edward Eichard generally keeps a holy week on those 
occasions, and slips to Flynnon Cwm y Gof, or some such 
silent retreat, out of the noise of the crowd. If so, or if not 
so, cannot you come to Cwmystwyth a Tuesday or Wednes- 
day night ? If you cannot, will you come to Cwm y Gof a 
Wednesday or Thursday ? Let me know if you can possibly. 
Griffìths cannot fix till Sunday whether Tuesday or Wednes- 
day we shall set out. Let me know by the bearer if you will 
favour us with your company, how and where, and I wiU let 
you know by some one who goes to Rlios fair a Monday what 
day we shall be at Cwmystwyth. So much for the Wells. 
The Herbert inscription required a conjuror to understand 
it as the bungler had wrote it, and you are more like to be in 
the right than I am, for I am no conjuror at all. Cyfiawn is 
certainly better sense than Cyflawn; but if a man has a mind 
to write Cyflawn I cannot help it. Why do you say it is in 
indifferent Latin ? Why did you not put some of your best 
stuff in it ? You have enough of it. Digrif fydd gweled 
Pegge yn constrio Homer. What becomes of the 8th case ? 
Surely it is a mistake of the printer's. There are too many 
cases already. However, bad as I am in health, you will see 
by a letter that comes along with tliis that I have not been 
idle, a bod gennyf ewyllys i daflu pel ar do er nad allaf daro 
neppell. You see I interlard my letters with Welsh, while 
men of learning adorn theirs with Greek and Latin quota- 
tions. But this is the highest pitch of my learuing, except. 


I tlirow in a dish of geometry and algebra, wLicli perhaps 
would be fitter for nie tlian to meddle with any language. 
The art of writing and speaking any language seems to nie a 
bottomless pit. I see no end of it. Custom has so liigh a 
hand over it that it is extream uncertain ; and the whims of 
manlíind in setting such arbitrary marks on our ideas hath 
niade a sad jumble of tliings, and I think the confusion of 
Babel is acted over and over eveiy day. To entice you to 
come to Fynnon y Cwm I shall bring some entertaining pieces 
of antiquity with me, &c., &c. 

" I am, yours sincerely, 

"Lewis Morris." 

" Penbryn, Aug. 23rd, 1700. 

" Dear Sir, — Fair y PJios draws near, at which time I unist 
send you a letter in course, as either my wife or servants call 
with you to enquire how the children do ; and as it is a rainy 
day, and the mangement of corn is not practicable, I have 
set down to my pen and ink to begin a letter, let it end 
where it wiU. News from the Wells is what you expect 
fìrst. I have too many things to say, aud therefore do not 
know where to begin or to end, but must leave them all for 
your entertainment when you come here, as you have pro- 
mised. The upshot of all is, that I am cent. per cent. better 
in health after drinking the waters, which I can never enough 
commend, and must leave the sea-water to tliose that have 
drauk less of it (and used it in other respects less) than I 
have. I brought with me a good microscope and proper 
apparatus to examine the salts of the different springs there 
before I ventured on either of them, and shewed the experi- 
ments to several gentlemen and ladies to their very great 
surprise. This determined my choice of the waters; and 
nature points each of them to their proper purposes from the 


veiy figure and make of their salts, whicli are better guides 
than all the experience of an undirected multitude. It is 
a pity there was not a treatise wrote on the waters by an 
experienced natural philosopher ; it would save thousands of 
lives. Delinden's book is a mere puff. I read it with great 
attention, but it made me never the wiser, nor will it make 
any body else, for he observes neither method, nor order, nor 
truth. If there was a practical treatise of the method of 
cure for the various diseases of mankind by these waters, 
it is my opinion these living waters would be the greatest 
panacea ever yet discovered by physicians. And what is all 
physic but a collection of experiments ? I wish any man of 
ability would make a collection of the cures performed by 
these waters, which were performed without even the direction 
of common sense ; it would surprise the whole world. As 
for my part, the inquiries that I have made in those few 
days that I was there astonish nie ; and the nostrums of 
balsams and pills seem to me to be mere squibs and meteors 
in comparison to these wonderful springs. The extraordinary 
cures performed on the poor who went there out of necessity 
and drank the waters in earnest, having been told by their 
neighbours, &c., that it cured them in the like cases ; but the 
misfortune is, an opinionated fellow may drink of a water 
directly contrary to his distemper, and so destroy himself by 
not following the beaten road of his neighbours, or tlie well 
advised judgment of a skilful person. There is no house so 
convenient for a patient to have tlie benefit of the waters as 
Thomas Jenkins's, which you recommended to me. But alas, 
it was a shocking sight to me the evening I arrived there, 
and I was afraid I should not have been able to live there 
till morning : it looked as if Tischer's corps had been there 
raising contributions, and had taken all the household stufî 
away, except an old man and his old wife, a sickly daughter, 
a few old chairs without bottoms, three broken tables, and 



had not left eitlier glass on tlie wiudows or a pair of bellows. 
My companion and I consulted for our own safety, and hy 
next morning we resolved to look on ourselves as patients in 
an hospital^ or prisoners at one of the French spas, and that 
it was best under these circumstances to bear with the custom 
of the place. My servant, being a carpenter, was sent to 
mend the tables and chairs, and a glazier was sent for, and 
between the glazier and carpenter the wiudows were made. 
AVe wanted an upholster, but there was none within reach, 
and very few feathers in the country. But the vicinity of 
the "Wells made amends for all : for we had the water as it 
came from the Creator's alembic, and we drank it at break- 
fast, at dinner, and at supper, and even in bed ; and now I 
would choose it for its taste before the best spring-drinking 
water I ever saw. I drank of the waters but six days. The 
third, I put on my shoes and stockings, which I had not been 
able to do for six months past. The 6th day, I mounted my 
horse without a horse block, and almost on a flat, which I 
had not been able to do for many years. Urgent business 
called me home the 7th day ; and I compute, if I had staid 
some weeks longer, I should have been 10 years younger for 
every week. Have you seen a copy of English verses wrote 
upon those waters some years ago ? They jDlease me much ; 
but I could not find who the author was. There w^as a 
few copies of them printed and handed about ; but as there 
was a little rub on the curate of Llandrindod, they were 
quashed. If you have not seen them I wiU send you a copy 
of them, that you may give me your opinion, whether there is 
not a strong poetical spirit through the whole. I met with 
nothing strange in that country, except a few Welsh names 
of fish, and a few uncommon plants. One piece of antiquity 
which I expected to have met with there is entirely lost with 
the common peoijle, I suppose, which is a country, or tract of 
land there, once called Gwarthynion. I have enquired amono- 

64 • LETTERS. 

others of a rnau 102 years olcl, and he had r.ever heard of such 
a territory ; aud yet in an ancient catalogue of the churches 
in Eadnorshire I find Llanvihaugel vach yn Gwarthynion ; 
and in Nennius we fiud a country hereabouts (I thinh) given 
to St. Garmon by way of attouement for the sius of Gwr- 
theyru, called Gwarthryniou, which the iguoraut scholiast 
upou Ncnnius derives from gwarth union ; but auy body with 
half an eye may see that tlie land was called GwrthejTuiawn, 
as from Ceredig comes Ceredigiawn (Cardigaushire) ; from 
Mervyn conies Mervyniou, etc. I had not time to go to 
Llau Avan Vawr to see the famous inscriptiou on tíe tomb- 
stone of Avan Beullt, who was cousin germau to Dewi (St. 
David), tlie first Archbishop of ]\íenevia, aud himself a 
bishop. If au Engiish autiquary could show such a piece of 
antiquity in the character or letter that was used in those 
days, what a noise would be made about it ! ! ! But we have 
several such in "Wales. Dou't you thiuk I am very idle, or 
at least verbose, wlien I can dwell so loug ou trifles ? Fare- 
well, and mahe haste to perform your promise of stayiug 
with me a couple of days. 

" I am, yours siucerely, 

"Lewis Moreis." 

" P.S. — I believe my wife will pay you for the children." 

"Peubryu, Sept. 8th, 17G0. 

" Dear Sir, — Last night I received yours of the 2ud, whicli 
had like to have gone astray like that to Dr. Philipps. You 
caunot imagiue how sorry I am for that letter's miscarriage, 
for I fed myself with a fancy of receiving soou some very 
extraordiuary answers to my doubts aud queries, which now 
perhaps never may come, for I shall not liave the patience to 
make up such another letter, though I have the heads and 
chief materials of it in my Celtic Ecmains and other places. 


I hope Mr. D. Eichards wül be able to find the persou he 
gave it to before he goes to the d — 1, or else I do not know 
what will becorae of him, or of the poor Teiitonic grant either. 
Wele hai. Dyn a feddwl, Duw a ran. Diolch yn fawr i chwi 
am son am y Fynnon ddrewdlyd yn sir Frycheiniog, ond ni wn 
i etto pa le ymae. Mi glywais fodFynnon o'r fath honno yn 
agos i Fuallt, ai honno ydyw eich Fynnnon chwi ? Ac onide 
pa un ydyw ? Though the sulpherous water you describe 
may be a great deal stronger than my favourite black water 
in the Wern at Llandrindod, mine though less cloo-çred with 
sulpher, may be as good an alterative, and as effectual in 
chronical cases as the other, or more so ; therefore, till I try 
the other, mine is best. 77 must not be thrown out of the 
Dictionary, though hundreds of others fairly deserve it. It 
is a local word used in some parts of North Wales. There is 
a verb ilio which is iu English to work ale, and a vessel they 
Tise to that purpose is called Llestr ilio ; yfed y cwrw o'r il, is 
drinhinff ale out of the working tub. You ask does Llwch 

o o 

deserve a place in the Dictionary better than Gwy ? Gwy is 
properly the name, or (as grammarians speak) the proper 
name of a river, called in Englisli, Wye. Nobody before ]\Ir, 
Edwd. Llwj^d dreamed of Gwy being originally the word for 
water ; and Dr. Da^des very seldom takes notice of the names 
of rivers and mountains. Mr. T. Eichards, therefore, should 
have put it in his Dictionary on the credit of Mr. E. Llwyd. 
Dr. Philipps has too good an opinion of me, and so has Mr. 
Pegge. Such encomiums are enough to make a vain fellow 
stark mad with pride. You know very well that they shoot 
vastly wide of the mark. I know who were learned men ; I 
am sure I am not. Such a glorious epithet fits only a Scaliger, 
a Selden, a Halley, a Newton, &c. Such a sacred character is 
infinitely beyond my reach. " Na wrthod dy barch pan y 
cynnygier," is an excellent British proverb ; but God forbid 
that I should pretend to sit easy under such a great character 


when I do not deserve it. I admire, and almost adore those 
great liglits and spirits of a snperior order, who were really 
learned men, and, for aught I know, iuspired ; but alas, they 
are so high above the common level, tliat I liave but a faint 
glimpse of their perfections. So much for comets with un- 
common orbits. 

" Your Octavus Casus is an odd affair. I do not know what 
to think of such cases of nouns as the 7th and 8th, when the 
genius of the Latin tongue requires but six different endings 
(or cases), according to íìve different forms (or declensions) , 
to express a word in its various relations. The genius of the 
Celtic and Teutonic requires no such cases, having no variety 
in the ending of tlieir nouns ; and why should the Latin be 
loaded with more than is absolutely necessary ? I only write 
at random as the liglit of nature seems to direct me. If this 
is not common sense let me know. N"ow I speak of the 
Latin tongue, I wish you would inform me if ever you have 
raet with any Latin author, wrote before the invention of 
cases of nouns and conjugations of verbs. These niceities 
were not known at Eome till above 500 years after the build- 
ing of the city, when Crates Malotes, of Pergamus, set up a 
grammar school there. Mr. Edward Llwyd, in his letter to 
the bishop of Hereford {Archceologîa Brit., p. 268), mentions 
it as a known thing, that at a certain time the Latin verbs 
had no terminations of ant, ent, and unt, &c. Pray, explain 
this affair, and let me have your opinion of it : for nobody 
can do it better, since that language is mixed with your very 
blood and animal spirits. I am sorry a mason, one single 
mason, a mere illiterate mason, should be the cause of your 
not seeing me at Penbryn. What cannot a lord or an esquire 
do, when a mason, with his mortared íingers, can do so much ? 
I have had some friends who would have knocked down some 
half a dozen masons if they stood in their way to preveut their 
seeing me, I am almost asleep, and my words come out l)y 


pieces, called syllables — yea, monosyllables ; so good night, 
Farewell. " Yours whilst 

" Lewis Moreis." 

" Penbryn, Sept. llth, 1760. 
" Dear Sir, — \Yawch fawr 1 dyma hen wraigyn yn dy wedyd 
imi glowed o houi hi, Mr. Edwd. Richard ei hunan, â'i enau 
ei hunan yn dywedyd fod Llythyr y Dr. Philipps gwedi ei 
gael, a darfod ei yrru iddo o Nant Eos er mawr lawenydd i 
bawb a sydd wedi camgymmeryd y ffordd i'w yrru, oblegid yr 
oeddynt yn ofni yn eu calonnau fod dinystr yn dyfod am eu 
pennau am ei oUwng ar gyfrgoU. Yr oedd y wraig hon yn 
dywedyd fod matterion pwysfa,wr yn y Uythyr hwnnw, na 
bo'nd ei grybwyl ! a bod, &c., &c., &c. You have forgot Caniad 
y Bontfendigaid : and to answer my query, whether you 
have seen the poem on Llandrindod waters. She further 
teUs me, Mi waranti i mai Ffynnon Lhanwrtyd y soniodd Mr. 
Edwd. Eichard am dani; chwi a eUwch ei chlywed hi yn 
drewi o Aber Gwesyn. Pray, solve these difficulties, and 
whether Flynnon Graig Fawr, in the road from Ehos Fair to 
Rhaiadr, a little before you come to Llyn Teifi, be not equal 
to either of them. " Yours as before'\ 

" Sept. 13th. — The messenger just going off; all the coast 
clear ; no enemies appearing. My wife talks of sending for 
the boys home for two days, for she says the neighbours' chil- 
dren are aUowed breath now and then. But this request is 
not yet complied with." 

" Penbryn, Sept. 15th, 1760, Monday. 

" Dear Sir, — I have yourä of Monday morning, I suppose 

this day sen'night, though it came here but last night. Pryse, 

I believe, carried it in his pocket wherever he went. I am 

glad the Teutonic letter is found. I wish you had let me 



kno"w how the doctor liked the taste of it ; I am afraid not 
so well as he expected, by the description given by yoii of it 
when lost. That raised his expectations far above the valne 
of the thing when found. Phoe, phoe, says he, is this all, 
that we kept such ado about ? Well, did not he say so, 
tell me seriously ? I wish you would increase your family 
another way, that the world might have some of the breed 
preserved. I know your answer, 'G-well gennyf i fy mam 
na menyw arall yn y byd, ac mae pobl eraill yn eppilio 
digon a gormod, pa beth y mae hwn yn ei geisio gennyf ? 
Ceisio dro arall fy hudo i wreicca, ag i dorri ar fy holl lonydd- 
wch meddwl ; ni bu gennyf erioed flas yn y peth, ac mi eis 
yn hên.' Let it be so, if you cannot taste what is good for 
you. I cannot help it. God mend your taste ; he actually 
expected you to propagate your kind, and he has now ordered 
you to do it ; he lias provided you with all materials for that 
purpose. If you were to examine the Scripture close, I think 
we could fìnd there, that you are ordered to live at Aberyst- 
with rather tlian on the mountain. However, in spite of 
all I can say, or even the Scripture can say, I see you will 
go on your own way, and that with such strictness, that you 
cannot even bear the sight of the fruitful and pleasant valley 
of Melinddwr, which íloweth with, &c. I suppose leuan 
Fardd has got his nose in some vellum MS., and cannot 
possibly take it out, tiU he has snuffed it all up. I wish, for 
the sake of the Cambro-British people, that he was well pro- 
vided for. It is a shame for the whole body of us to suífer 
such a genius to trifle away his time by slaving so liard for a 
little drink : he gets nothing else by his labour. 

" Sept. 16. — My wife tells me that she has ordered the 
boys liome with Evan William's son unknown to me, and 
that she expects them home by dinner time to-day. Dyna'r 
fath beth yw mam. 

" A correspondent of mine, wliose parish hath been blessed 


lately witli a clergyman very miich Aiigiifiedj sencls me the 
foUowing query. AVhat does Mr. L — d mean when he reads 
in the Litany, oddiwrth falchder a gwag ogoniant a phîg 
sancteiddrwydd ? Pa fath big ydyw honno. Pray let me 
have a proper answer to this in your next, says my corre- 
spondent. What is to come next concerning spells or charms, 
called in Welsh S'wynion. I wish you would procure me the 
words of one of these Sioynioìis. Several old women and 
some old men have them, and cure distempers through their 
means. Eemains of Druidism. 

" Sept. 17th, at night. — Wele hai ! dyma'r plantos newydd 
ddyfod adref yn llawen iawn, a dyma finnau gwedi bod yn 
chwilio rhinwedd dwfr y Graig Fawr. A chalybeate purgative 
spring, and good for certain diseases if drank with judgment. 
T have also your letter, which I begin to answer thus. If I 
live next summer I intend to visit Fynnon Llanwrtyd. You 
do not explain to me what Mr. Edward Llwyd means in the 
place I mentioned in his Archieol. Brit. about the plural ter- 
mination of verbs. I am inclmed to think it is literally true 
by what Fabius {Inst. Crat) says, that the Salian Priests in 
the Augustan age scarcely understood their own liymns, 
which were instituted by Numa. Let it be as it will, such a 
great master of languages must mean something. Tbough I 
know little or nothiug of these things, yet busy minds must 
be meddling. What shall I fill this paper with ? My case 
is not parallel to Dean Swift's. It was his ijride that made 
liim send to Sheridan for his boy's exercises, for he looked 
upon books to be as far below his notice as these children's 
works ; but it is not so with me. I am an humble admirer 
of all works of genius in what class soever they are, and look 
upon aU to be above me, and if your editor, Mr. 01iver, hath 
done you justice, I iiitend to feast on Caniad Pontfendigaid, 
and, as the man said of his mistress — 


• Digon o fwyd geiinyf i 
Goetian fy ngolwg atti,' 

These are my classics ; fal y bô r dyn y bydd ei Iwdu. 

" I have lately got six Englyns wrote by Morgan Herbert, 
on advice to bis son. I see in tliem a lively description of a 
sensible good man tliat understood the world, agreeable to 
his epitaph, and not a mean poet. If yon promise to put 
them into EugHsh heroic verse, 1 will send them you ; per- 
haps you had rather turn them into Latin. I'll send you 
also the poem on Llandrindod when I have more leisure than 
I have now. When you have read thus far you begin to 
scratch your head and rub your elbows, and talk thus to 
yourself, ' Doth this vain man think that I have nothing to 
do but to sit down and read his dreams and reveries ; have 
not I forty boys to look after, and have not I architects to 
direct, and have not I Camden to read, and have not I Homer 
to consult about the sound of the waves ? Must not I have 
time to eat and drink as well as other people who have no 
conscience, I thiuk?' Hold, hold, you need read no more 
here. I have just done, and am going to supper. Happy 
for you, or else I would have begun another half-sheet. Fare- 
weU. " Yours, 

"Lewis Morris." 

"Penbryn, Sept. 20th, 1760. 

" Dear Sir, — I have yours by your servant, for which I am 
much obliged to you, and I don't doubt your being concerned 
for our misfortunes here, which I reckon as none, for they 
are the natural consequences of living in this world, and the 
lessons of the school of adversity. I cannot say we are out 
of danger yet, for open wounds and fractures are never out of 
danger, but we are in what the biük of the people call a fair 
way of recovery. A fever which belongs to fractiires may 
seize the boy, which he hath escaped hitherto, and the ulcer 


011 my leg may turn pliagedíeuic or worse, through an iU 
hahit of body, or an irregular way of living, and may go 
beyond the skill of a Cardiganshire surgeon. The conse- 
quence is removing to a world where there is no occasion for 
snrgeons, a lle na chloddia lladron trwodd. Thirty days is 
the time allowed for the cure of the radius or ulna, and I 
shall not go beyond the common boundary, and then the 
boys sliall come and confound Latin tiU they are tired. I 
am afraid they make no hand at all of it, and that they are 
intended for the plough, they are so extreme duU, My pain 
is now very great while I write this, and I would advise 
satyrical writers to have always a sharp wound on their leg, 
which would certainly make them sliine. May it not l^e a 
question worth resolving, whether all iU-natured critics have 
not ulcers in some part or other that irritate their spirits ? 
Thomas Williams's performance, which I sent you, was 
stewed up in London ; but what I send you inclosed liere 
comes from Mona, the ancient seat of the Muses, and was 
carried there by one of the country, a disciple of Daniel Eow- 
lands, so that you are to look upon it as the excrenients of a 
Tal y Bont man, which he voided in a fìt of looseness at Bod 
Edeyi'ii, in Anglesey, where he is now a schoolmaster, to the 
dishonour of all Wales be it spoken. You see tliese vermin 
creep into all corners, through the least crevices; and even the 
seat of the Muses, the Temples of the Gods, and the Cabinets 
of Princes, are not exempt from them. Is our age more fer- 
tile in ignorance than the last, or is it because a leuan Fardd 
and a Gronwy have appeared in the world that these flies 
infest us and lay their eggs in every matrix they can meet 
witli ? They are not uulike indeed the aurelias of butterflies 
wdiicli eat our cabbages. He that hath no cabbage need not 
fear them ; and if neither Gronwy nor leuan had appeared, 
we sliould have none of these apparitions. By this time you 
stare about you for the explicatioii of the names of rivers and 


mountains, wliich I partly promised yoii, for as I can write so 
much low nonsense by wholesale, why not a little by retail of 
the other kind of nonsense ? Well, now for it. But to pre- 
mise, take notice that some of the most ancient and common 
names of mountains and rivers even in Wales, let alone Eng- 
land, are inexplicable in any of tlie Northern languages, Celtic 
or Teutonic ; and Mr. Edward Llwyd's making them Gwydd- 
elian British, for the language of the first planters, will not 
do, for they are not found in the present Gwyddelian or Irish, 
if ever they were there. Therefore I conchide such names to 
be the language of the first planters indeed, but what kind of 
language that was I dare not determine, or we may guess it 
to be the language of Gomer, as he picked it up at that great 
jumble at Babel, without rules, crder, or reason. This jargon 
was probably taken up by his descendants, the Celtic nation, 
and might be pretty well molded and trimmed before they 
came to Britain, when they gave their fìrst names to most 
mountains and rivers here from their nature and situations ; 
but as yet this language had not undergone the discipline 
and chains of grammar, therefore is not exactly what we now 
have. What a wild piece of work then is it to attempt to 
etymologise or rather to anatomise those ancient names, aud 
to bring them to the modern Celtic or any of its branches, 
viz., the Welsh, Irish, Erse, Armoric, or Cornish. Many an 
alteration by conquest, by mixt colonies, and by several acci- 
dents, hath the Celtic tongue sufíered from that day to this, 
and I know no man liviug that can tell me the meaning of a 
mouutain in Wales called yt Eifl, another called Puìnlumon, 
and many such. How then is it possible to explaiu the 
names of mountains and rivers in England, Erauce, and 
Italy, &c., tliough purely Celtic, when disfigured by time, 
by buugling transcribers, by foreign conquerors of the Teu- 
tonic race, and by the great tyraut, Custom ? The utmost 
we can do then is to compare such with the ancient and 


in-bred iianies of places in Wales, wliich have remained so 
time immemorial, and several of which we can trace in the 
works of our poets so far backward as near a quarter of the 
number of years towards the creation of the world. These 
are great things, and which no nation besides can pretend to 
do with that certainty as we can, from the very nature and 
structure of our language and poetry. Some of the names of 
mountains and rivers in couiitries which were once inhabited 
by the Celtic may have been in some measure changed by 
the conquerors, sornetimes new names imposed, and some- 
times translated into their language ; others may remain cor- 
rupted, and some few uncorrupted, but who can distinguish 
them ? If the Eiver Sheaf is a straight and swift river, I 
should be apt to think its original name was Sacth, an arrow, 
as Saethon, in Wales. An hasty antiquary would immediately 
pronounce the Eiver Dove to be called so from the British 
Dof, tame ; but if the Dove is not a tame river, tlie derivation 
is ridiculous, and you must look for the origin of it in the 
rivers Dyji and Toìüì, in Wales. AU these things considered, 
you may take my etymology of the names you sent in what 
light 5^ou will, they are mostly no better than mere guess 
work, because I am a stranger to tlie situation of the places, 
&c., but none of them are mere whims and trifles such as 
Mr. Baxter and others have run into. Etymology requires a 
great deal of modesty, and not to run headlong as Camden 
and others have done, when tliey had but very little know- 
ledge in the language they treated of. 

" A native of Wales must look on the great Camden with 
an eye of indignation whcn he íìnds him asserting that the 
Gaulish Bagaudte, certain bands of rnen who strove in Gaul 
against the Eoman power in Dioclesian^s time, were so called 
from Beichiacl, which, he says, signiíies, in the Welsh, swine- 
herd. But every Welshman knows that Beichiad never 
signified swineherd in our language. The word is Mcichiad, 


from Moch, so Llywarcli Hen, about 1200 years ago, saiclj 
Bid layjcìi meichiad wrth uchenaid giüynt, because of tlie fall 
of acorns in that case. What then must become of INIr. Cam- 
den's swineherds ? IMight not j)loughmen and tradesmen form 
an army as well as swineherds ? But Mr. Camden should 
have told us that Baííaudse and Baíjoda had been also wrote 
by some authors Bagadíe ; and we know that Bagad, in tlìe 
British tongue, is a multitude; and in Armoric-British, to this 
very day, Bagacl signifies a troop or batallion : and to put the 
niatter out of dispute, iu the Irish or old Gwyddelian British, 
Bach is a battle, and Bagach, warlike. I shall oidy mention 
one thing out of Baxter's Glossary, who, not content vrúX\ 
murdering and dismembering old British words, murders and 
annihilates our very saints — men noted in the primitive 
Church of Britain for planting our religion. In tlie word 
Corguba, because it sounds like Cacr Gybi, he makes Caer- 
gybi to be read Caer Corb, which he says is an old Irish word 
for a cohort, and denies the very being of a saint of the name 
of Cybi. But neither his Corb nor his Cuba are to be heard 
of anywhere else. Kebius, called by the "Welsh, Cybi, was 
the son of Solomon, Duke of Curnwall. All our ancient 
MSS. agree in tliat. He was not only founder of this Church, 
but of several otliers in Wales : Llan Gybi in Lleyn, and 
Llan Gybi in Cardiganshire, Llan Gybi in Momnouthshire, 
which all exist. Are all these to change their names to please 
the Avhim of Mr. Baxter ? And Caer Cybi was a Church so 
called because within a Castrum still existing. Cybi lived 
at the time of tlie dissolution of the Eoman Empire in Britain, 
and was contemporary, and in great friendship, with St. 
Seirioel. What sets the matter above aU dispute is, that 
there are two ancient inscriptions upon stones in the \\'all of 
the Church of Caer Cybi (Holyhead) where Kebius is ac- 
knowledged the patron saint. There was no such scarcity of 
saints in Wales in those days to put them to the shift of 


inveuting fictitious uames for their Cliurclies. Fynnon Grybi, 
Eisteddfa Gybi in Anglesey, and the ancient tradition and 
prorerb to this day in that island, Seirioel Wyn a Chyhi felyn, 
are also evidences of the strongest kind, so that we are as 
sure there was once such a man as Kybi as that Dewi, Teilo, 
Padarn, Curig, Padrig, &c., were once founders or patrons of 
those churches which bear their names. ^lien men of as 
great learning as Camden and Baxter can advance such in- 
coherent stiiff, is it a wonder that every smatterer in history 
thinks himself equal to them, and even that witticism and 
pims take place of solid knowledge, and that etymology hath 
so little credit ? As for my part, I am very cautious how I 
meddle with those things, and can say nothing positive, and 
abominate a fanciful derivation of an ancient name. If we 
can give a probable and gTave accoimt of a name, and back it 
by ancient authority or reason, it is all that can be expected, 
and we should stop there. Take the following accouut then 
of the names you sent me, and be assm-ed that few men 
besides yourself could have extorted so much out of me at 
this time. I could wish you, who have such a superior capa- 
city, would turn your head to these studies, and take the 
labouring oar out of the hand of such weaklings as have no 
strength to manage it. Dericcnt, the English name of some 
rivers in England. On one of this name, which runs through 
Sm-rey and falls into tlie Thames, was fought the first of 
Gwrthefyr's battles with Hengist aud Horsa, the Saxons, 
(mentioned by our British writers) in the 5th centmy. In 
that corrupt edition of Xennius, by Dr. Gale, this river is 
called Dererent and Deregwent. In our ancient V3llum manu- 
script of Galfrid's Latin translation of Tyssilio which I have, 
it is "super fluvium Derwende." In the Paris editions of Gal- 
frid, 1508 and 1517, it is "super fluvium Deriment." In the 
Heydelberg edition of Galfrid it is Derwent. There is a river 
Derwent that ruus thro' Derbyshire, another thro' Yorkshh"e, 

76 ■ LETTERS. 

on wbicli Antoniniis's Derventio, a Roman station, stands, 
seYen miles from York. In my ancient Britisli copy of 
Tyssilio's History of Britain, that battle is said to have been 
ar Avon Dewennydd, which, in the old orthography, was 
wrote, Derucnyt, and hence came Derwent. I know wliat 
Mr. Baxter says of Derventio ; that it comes from the Welsh 
Derwent and Dirwyn — all of a piece with Corguba, afore- 
mentioned ; inventions and boilings over of a fertile brain. 
The Welsh tongue never had the word Derwent, therefore 
his whole buildiiig is without foundation. I ha,ve traced it 
to its original British name, but will not attempt the etymo- 
logy of it. If it is from Derw Oak, why was not every river 
that ran through a forest caUed Dervennydd ? Eother ; if 
the bed of this river is reddish, it might originally be caUed 
Ehudder or Ehuddwr, i. e., Eedwater. Iber or Hyber ; there 
are rivers in Wales which have pêr, sweet, in their names, as 
Peryddon,Pergwm, &c.,and this might have been Hyber, easüy, 
sweet Amber, q. d., Amaeth ber, sweet nurse. So we have 
Amaeth aradr, UteraUy, plough nurse. Erwash, C. B. Er-wys, 
the river of heroes. Trent, wrote in our most ancient MSS. 
of Llywarch Hen, Tren ; but from whence derived I know 
not. Dove ; if a 'ri^er from a level ground, it had its name 
from the British Dof, tame ; biit if a swift river, it is of the 
same origin with the Dyfi in Wales and Tywi. Wye ; tlie 
old British name of this river was Gwy, and is stiU, which 
seems to have been the word for water in general among the 
first planters, as appears from the names of water fowl, 
having it in their compositious — Gwj'dda, goose ; hwyada, 
duck ; gwglan, a gull ; gwyach, a snipe ; gwyram, barnacles ; 
gwylog, a guülimot. A great many rivers iu Wales have 
Gwy, or Wye, in the composition of their names, as Dyfrdwy, 
Dyfrdonwy, Trydonwy, Llugwy, Mawddwy, Elwy, Dwyfawr, 
Dwyfach, Edwy, Efurnwy, Mynwy, Onwy, in Llywarch Hen, 
&c. Larhel ; we have rivers in Wales of the names of Par- 
chell and Marchell, i.e., pig-water and horse-water, l3ut whether 

LETTERS. * 77 

this is any of tliese originals, or from Llawreul, a narrow bot- 
tom, I don't pretend to determine. Dolee had its name pro- 
bably from Dolau, or Dolennau, windings. Sheaf might 
originally have been Saeth, an arrow. 

" Of Hills. — Bunster might originally have its name from 
bann, high, or bryn, a hiU. But as I know not where it 
stands, I can say nothing of it. Chevin is probably the 
British Cefn, a back or ridge, as Cefn Nithgroen, Cefn y Gar- 
Ueg, and such high lands in waters. Cloud is probably the 
British Llwyd, as the EngUsh Clan for Llan. We have in 
Wales Llwydiartli y Bryn-Llwyd, Cefn Llwyd, Escair Llwyd, 
&c. Gun, I take to be corrupted from the British Gwyn, as 
Barwyn, y Cefn gwyn, Gwynfynydd, y Bryngwyn, &c. ; and the 
Appenine is nothing else but Epenwyn, or in modern ortho- 
graphy, y penwyn, the white topped. Mamtorr, may pro- 
bably ]iave been of the same origin with Maentwr, or with 
Mynyddtwr, of which name there is a mountain in Anglesea, 
q. d., Tower Mountain. Masson, if there were plenty of ash 
trees there, might be caUed by the Celtse Maes Onn, q. d., 
Ashfield. Morridg might probably be originaUy caUed in 
the British Mawrwydd, great wood, as Bronwydd, &c. Peak; 
this seems to be the Celtic Pic, now Pig, a biU from a rock, 
probably of that fìgure ; but we have no names of mountains 
in Wales to resemble it. Riber may have taken its name 
from the British Ehiwferr, if it is reaUy a short ascent, 
Several mountains in Wales have Rhiw in the composition 
of their names, as Rhiw Felen y Rhiw Goch, Rhiw Naut Bran, 
&c., and the Greek pLov, and Latin rupes, are of the same 
origin. Weverhül, of which name there is also a river in 
England, may have been taken from Gwefr, Amber, or Gwi- 
wair, a Scpiirrel, q. d., Squirrel Hill ; or rather from Gwiber, 
a flying serpent. It is high time to leave off, both for your 
ease and mine. " I am, dear sir, 

" Your most humble servant, 

" Lewis Moeris." 


" Oct. 15th, given at Penbryn, 1760. 
" Dear Sir, — The minute I put this pen to paper, my wife 
tells me, in great ífwdan, that her boys want breeches, stock- 
ings, and shirts, and her maid must go this minute to Ystrad 
Meurig ; so if T have a mind to write to Mr. Eichards it must 
be instantly. So I will. The matter of the greatest concern 
I have to impart to-day, that the fìrst .... son of David 
John 01iver, called here yesterday as drunk as a slater, who 
told me he had no letter from you, but he had his message 
in his head. ' Wliat is that', said I ? ' Here it is^ said he, 
and sung out, with a loud voice, an excellent song made on 
Pontfendigaid ; and before I could thank him, he brought 
me out another, saying, 'Dyma un arall a wnaeth ef i hoelion 
rhod;' and that being scarce done, 'Dyna un araU i nhad oedd 
a darn o drwyn ganddo a dreuli^vyd gan y Flagen, a dyma 
un arall i Bob, a dyma un araU i Gutto, a dyma un i Sionir 
Golau a dyma un i,' &c., &c. The Datgenydd deUvered them 
aU with great justice, and gave me great pleasure; and I 
could not help thinking of the Druidical bards of old, who 
spoke aU in verse, and the man looked wild, as if he had been 
possessed at Delphos. He promised to get me a copy on 
paper of some of those I admired most, and that he would 
bring them me next Sunday in exchange for a belly fuU of 
bottled ale. I long to liear from you. I am almost in the 
hyp, the worst of all diseases. I am extremely obliged to 
the discoverer of the waters of Llandrindod. I am twenty 
years younger than I was last winter ; but I shaU grow old 
by and by. 

" I am, yours sincerely, 

" Lewis Morris. 
" I have got lately a pareel of curious Pioman coins". 


" Penbryii, Dec. 2nd, 1760. 

" Dear Sir, — This comes to call for my Snckers liome. 
Tlie old tree was like to have been blown down by a hurri- 
cane, and is now scarce alive — scarce indeed. On the 14tli 
Nov. a fiery pleuritic fever knocked me down flat. God left 
nie my senses ; and I bled about half a hundred ounces, . . . 
until I got it under, and also a spitting of blood attended it. 
Mr. Pryse was of great help to me ; I could trust nobody else 
to bleed me". But, says you, what is all tliis to me, fevers, 
colics, &c. ? N"o\v, if you were a goose, as I am, I would 
compare myself to our feathered geese, who, when they escape 
a dauger, wiU gabble for an hour together ; and it certainly 
gives them pleasure, and so it does me, tho' writing is ex- 
treme painful to my head. WeU, to continue my Clegar : 
On the 22nd, at ten at night, being in a violent sweat in the 
height of my fever, the chimney of my bedroom took fire, 
which in a few minutes blazed up to the clouds, or several 
yards high at least, with gTeat noise. It threw lumps of fire 
on a thatched liouse adjoining, aud dow^u tlie chmmey, even 
aU over the room and under my bed. As it pleased God, my 
servants were not gone to bed ; they foUowed my directions 
and immediately my room was aU afloat, and the fire extin- 
guished. I was as little able to bear water as fire, but both 
I was obliged, which gave my fever a compHcated turn, and 
for aught I know for the best. I have got over it, thank 
God ; but my head is as giddy as a drunkard's, and my body 
weak, and can scarce creep, having lost whole coUops of flesh, 
if it is loss. I liad an excellent nurse, whose iuterest w^as to 
save my Ufe ; and there is no stronger demonstration in the 
world than this, that no nurse is equal to a wdfe. Consider 
of this seriously. My case may be yours, and you may lose 
your life foelishly for want of such, or at least bear very great 
hardships. In the midst of my terrors in fire and wat«r 


I could not help tlniiking of David ap Gwilym's expres- 

sion : — 

Tán aml a dwr tew'n ymladd, 
Tan o lid, dwr tew 'n ei ladd. 

" In sucli a case you would liave tliouglit of Homer ; but 
God defeiid you from sucli an accident, and take care of your 
cliimneys. I sliall endeavour to guard against sucli accidents 
for tlie future. This fever and fìre were two heavy blows ; 
but they were rods which God thought proper to shew with 
a gentle hand, for my good no doubt. I am glad your mother 
is on the recovery. An old tree will be long recovering new 
fìbrous roots. I wish you would let me see a catalogue of 
your books in your library ; I may have some duplicates or 
other which possibly I may throw in. I have also begun a 
library (no, a closet) for my few books ; but the pleurisy stood 
at the door with a drawn sword and threatened me. Nay, 
I have laid a plan for a cabinet to put up my natural curio- 
sities of fossils, shells, &c. ; but that same pleurisy told me, 
with a stern countenance, go to bed, and bleed and sweat, and 
consider of it. Now, I intend to have the other touch at it. 
My cabinet is to contain fìve or six thousand articles, which 
I have ready to put up, I hope I shall see you when that 
happens. Is not Mr. Pegge long a considering about an 
answer to my letter ? I cannot go to my bureau to return 
you his and the doctor's letters. Onid oes berw rhyfeddol 
yn fy mhen i o ddyn claf heb aUu na bwytta nag yfed ? I can 
write no more to-night. God be with you. 

" I am, yours sincerely, 

" Lewis ]\Ioeris." 

" December 3rd, 1760. — I am much better if the weather 
would j)ermit me ; but as my head is a barometer I cannot 
expect to be well tiU the weather is good. Your observation 
about Mr. Pegge's Argolicum is just. His etymon is not 


according to analogy. The doctor lias a great opinion of liiin, 
and too gi-eat, indeed, of me ! I really blush at tlie high 
encomiums he gives me, though I see wliat it is owing to, 
\ìz., an excessive love of my country. You say that no trout 
ecjuals that of Llyn Teifì, and I say no oysters equal those 
of Pthos Colyn (in Anglesey) ; and so said the people of Pionie 
of those of the Lucrine Lake. Do not fail to send me your 
catalogue. Make no excuses, and as soon as I can get au 
amanuensis j'ou shall have a catalogue of my poor collection. 
I liave iiad a jjresent made me lately of a manuscript on 
veUum, but my head is not yet solid enougli to make a right 
judgment of it, aud it belongs more to a ^^Titer of ecclesias- 
tical history than to me. I am afraid there is little in it that 
suits my taste, though curious in its kind. I am tired once 
more, so must leave off, and perhaps shall have no fiirther 
opportunity to write any more before my messenger goes. 

" Yours as before." 

" Saturday, about 3 iu tlie morning, in bed. 

" Yesterday a diarrhcea took me, which made me extream 
uneasy ; but by the help of my own garden rhubarb I liope it 
is carried off, for T feel the effects of it. This is like a cobler 
patching an old shoe whicli may last one winter more, or 
make a closen, or soaiething. David John 01iver has not 
been a man of his word ; I have not one song to divert me. 
Last post has brought me a letter from Mr. Pegge, which I 
suppose opens a correspondence for life. I have sent to Lon- 
don for a book he has published, that I may see hini in the 
book. " Yours very crazy, 

" Lewis Mohris." 




In accordance witli the intention we expressed in page 37 
of the first volmne of Y Cijmmrodor, we revert to tlie subject 
of tlie development of the fine arts in their practical uses 
and bearing upon the Principality. We then recorded the 
"opening" of the Castlereagh Tower at Machynlleth, and ex- 
pressed our admiration of the beautiful edifice. We have 
now to record the erection of another, though less pretentious, 
architectural structure at Portmadoc — a fountain erected not 
only for adornment, but for the purpose of supplying the 
town with a flowing rill of pure mountain water. Its style 
is admirably adapted to the locality in whicli it stands, and 
to its intended purpose. The pedestal, six feet in height, is 
formed of two large blocks of Cornish granite, eacli weighing 
upwards of three tons, the front face being polished. The 
"axed" portion sparhles with felspar and mica. The basin is 
of highly polished Sicilian marble, and receives its jet of 
water from a bronzed lion's head. The whole is surmounted 
by an elaborate ornameutal pillar with brachets supporting 
three octagonal gas lamps. 

The fountain was designed by Messrs. W. and T. Wills, 
and has been erected as a memorial of Mr. William Alexander 
Maddochs, the founder of Portmadoc, and in commemoration 
of the coming of age of his graudson, Mr. Francis William 
Alexander Eoche. 

The ceremony of "the opening" was more than usually 
interesting. The water was turned on by Mrs. Breese, of 
Morfa Lodge, with a quiet grace that won her the applause 
of the crowd coUected around. The fountain beino- tlius 
proved to be complete, Mr. Breese, with a short but excellent 



speecli, handed over to tlie contractor a clieque for tlie amoiint 
of its cost. Mr. Morgan Lloyd, M.V., next spolce, and made 
some telling remarks on the excellence of water as a beve- 
rage, compared with iutoxicating driuhs. The Kev. Eobert 
Jones, of Eotherhithe, followed with some Welsh lines appro- 
priate to the ceremony, and ended with recitiug the following 
yerses written for the occasion : — 

Daugliters of the glen aud mountain, 

When to this bright silvery rilL, 
Bubbling from its rocky fountain, 

Ye your yessels corae to íill, 
May its lirapid gush recalüng 

Memories of a nobler tide, 
Tell you of the life-blood falling 

From a dying Saviour's side ! 

Be your life, ye gentle daughters, 

Active as its running streara ; 
Pure and bright as Iiving waters 

Sparkling in the noon-day beam ; 
Calm each thought as vv^hen the heavea 

Mirrored lies in glassy seas, 
Gently thus shall tides of even 

Bear you o'er their waves in peace. 

A few speeches in Welsh followed ; after which the con- 
eourse, Mdiich had come to wituess the ceremouy, quietly 

It would be as uujust as it would be uugenerous were we 
not to notice the effectual help rendered by Mr. Breese, uot 
ouly towards the erection of this fountain, but towards the 
carrying out of various improvements in the town and neigh- 
bourhood of Portmadoc ; and we were glad to find how highly, 
in cousequeuce, both he and Mrs. Breese were greeted by the 
inhabitants. In the same words that we spoke of David 
Howel at Machyulleth, we would speak of Edward Breese at 
Portmadoc. We would hold him up as an example of Mdiat 
a single individual, when uuiuflueuced by selíishness, can do 
for the locality in which he moves and for the people among 
whom he lives. G 2 



We have little to record of this Eisteddfod. In some points 
it was a grand success ; in otliers, it hardly reached medio- 
crity. Tlie crowded attendance on most of the days proved 
how popnlar the old institution is with the masses of the 
people ; and it was a matter of deep regret to every patriot 
there that so splendid an audience should not have been 
treated witli a richer intellectual feast. 

There were great drawbacks. Tlie pavilion which had been 
erected for the Eisteddfod was on too gigantic a scale : its 
form, too, an oblong, was, in our opinion, but ill suited for the 
conduct'of sound. On most of the days we visited the farther 
end of the building for the purpose of testing its acoustic 
character, and from that quarter the business on the platform 
was little better than dumb show. The patience of the per- 
sons seated there had to undergo a severe ordeal. We give 
the greatest credit to our countrymen for the extreme good 
huniour with which their negation of what should have been 
most interesting was borne. We doubt that an English audi- 
ence would have done so with the same equanimity. 

The absence of Mynyddog as conductor ^yas a great 
calamity. Alas ! poor Yorick. He lies in his quiet grave 
hard by the old Chapel of Llanbrynmair, and the wit and jest 
and humour with which the Eisteddfod rang when he, its 
ruling spirit, directed its movements, were sadly wanting at 
Caernarvon. Estyn and Llew Llwyfo did their best ; but all 
their energies seemed but to provoke a comparison with 
former Eisteddfodau. Some of the trivialities, too, they 
enunciated from the platform were unworthy of themselves. 


to say iiothing of the tliousands who had come together for, 
we trust, something higher and better. Eight thousand people 
gathered and brought together — some from remote parts of 
the country — demanded a better programme, and a more 
faithfal carrying out of it, than was found at Caernarvon. 

Some of the " old familiar faces", too, of the Eisteddfod 
were away — some who, in the hours of its greatest need, had 
been its firm and unselfish friends. Brinley Eichards was 
not there. John Thomas, Pencerdd Gwalia, was absent. 
How was this ? Professor Macfarren, unused as he was to 
Eisteddfodau, deplored their absence, and, iu his own cpiiet 
gentlo manner, rebuked the directing body for not having 
secured their attendance. 

But what struck us more than all was the absence of the 
county families from tlie gathering. At Wrexham, in the 
previous year, there was a no mean sprinkling of the aristo- 
cracy. Sir Watkin WiUiams Wynn was there, a host in him- 
self, with Lady Williams Wynn, and his daughters ; the Lord 
Lieutenant of the County and Mrs. West ; the Bishop of St. 
Asaph, with many others of a high station ; but at Carnarvon 
the same support was not given to the Eisteddfod. Lord 
Penrhyn was present on the day in which he presided, and 
there were on the several days one or two others of the gentry 
of the neighbourhood ; but that was all. We regret this ex- 
ceedingly ; at the same time, we congratulate Caernarvou on 
the presence of tlie " thews and sinews" of the land. The 
people were there in all the grandeur that numbers and vast- 
ness give to an assembly. 

The several Presidents made, on the whole, excellent 
speeches. The ]\Iayor of Caernarvou spoke well and seusibly 
on the first day. Lord Penrhyn brought his usual amount of 
good common sense to bear on his subject ; and there were 
utlier efrective utterances — such as those of Mr. Henry 
lìichard, ^I.P., whose speeches, and he delivi'red two, wcm 


sparldiug witli gems. Nor must we pass by tlie speech of 
Mr. Breese, the chairman of the Thiirsday's concert. He 
spoke some homely truths in no ungentle or bitter spirit. 
Mr. Breese was triúy eloquent as he uttered the following 
passage : — 

1 hope I shall not be considered ungrateful if I express disappoint- 
ment at the absence of our most distiuguished Welshmen. I for one 
sadly miss at this, a great national gathering of the Cymry, not only 
the presence, but the souud and honest advice, and the brilliant touch 
ou that iustrument (pianoforte) of the gifted composer of our second 
national anthem, Brinley Richards, who has done so much for "Welsh 
music and Welsli musicians. I would also we could hear those magic 
straius which are evoked from our national instrumeut by the cuuniug 
íìngers of that priuce of harpists, Jolin Tliomas, who has so ofteu dis- 
coursed most eloqueut music to us — 

"lu notes, with many a wiudingbout, 
Of liuked sweetness long drawn out." 


But our Presideut this moruing explained that the Committee wished 
to have rejîresentati^es of Euglish, Irish, and Scotch talent amongst 
us, and it may be well for us to listen to them, though not to the ex- 
clusion of our own. For I f ear we are prone as a nation to place our 
music and all our achievemeuts in literature and art on too liigh a com- 
parative pedestal. For myself, I see nothing but beauty in our clustering 
hills and secluded vales, in our placid lakes aud turbuleut streams. I 
am proud of the ancient literature aud music that have consecrated 
every hill and every dale. But we niust remember there is a world out- 
side Wales, and a big one, which many of us have seen, and in which 
there are mountains higher and more majestic — valleys deeper aud more 
secluded — lakes broader and in grander settiugs — and larger rivers, ever 
hurrying ou through wider channels to pour themselves into bluer seas. 
The poetry and the prose, the miustreky and the art of other couutries 
have a wider range than our own. But for all this, we may be proud 
of our owu, aud foster theui with every care. One of our airs — the 
well-kuowu " Hob y deri daudo" — is said to be the most aucieut known 
tune, and to have been composed by the Druids. Auother of our melo- 
dies, many centiu-ies old, carries us back in its plaintive wail to the 
defeat on Morfa Rhuddlan. We may be justly proud of Dr. Burney's 
remarks in his great history of music, that it was in the quiet Welsh 
valleys (though he adds " among a semi-barbarous people") the first 
souud principles of harmony were fouud. But we should be more proud 


of that progress and refiueraent of later days wbich have given its our 
Edith Wynue, om- Brinley Richards, aud our John Thomas, and wliicii 
have niade us all more fitting and appreciative receptacles for sweetest 

There were other speeches ; but if we except that of Hwfa 
Mon, and even he was not himself, they were not equal to 
the occasion. 

The conipetition for the several prizes, as well as the adju- 
dications, were of the usual character. The music was no 
worse, and, most certaiuly, it was no better, than we have 
heard at other Eisteddfodau. Oue musical composition, by 
a late talented pupil of the University College of Wales, Mr. 
David Jenkius, seems to be a superior eÖusion of genius. 
The chair prize poem, too, was an excellent one. AVe have 
since made a farther acquaintance with it, and our first im- 
pressions are confirmed. The following lines to ' The hirk' 
are very beautiful : — 

Hudol wyd Avyl Ehedydd, — blygeiniol 
Nabl, genad boreuddydd ; 
Yn rhoi fry mewn ter froydd 
Fawrwych dôu i gyfarch dydd. 

Nor less so are the following, ' To a young maiden with her 
milk-pair: — 

Ar y fron draw 'r forwynig — a welir, 
Wylaidd dlos enethig ; 
Drwy coed, yn troedio 'r cwm, 
Mor hoyw mae a'r ewig. 

Edrydd ei cherdd wrth odro, — ni cheir briw 
Na chur brou î'w blino ; 
Gwefr yw ei hiaith, — creig y fro 
Ar y wendeg sy 'u gwraudo. 

With respect to the other compositions, there was lacking 
that enthusiasm which overflows when genius sj)arkles and 
talent al:)Ounds in the compositions. 

Altoírether, the Eisteddfod at Caernarvon was uot wìmt we 


slioiüd desire our countrymen to look up to. We would not 
set it up for a model, but rather use it as a beacon to warn 
tliem off the slioals and quicksands whereon Eisteddfodau, if 
their present course be persisted in, wiU assuredly be wrecTîced. 

There is one point on which we would give this Eisteddfod 
and its managers the highest praise. The fìnancial arrange- 
ments, expenditure, and division of surplus, do them the 
greatest credit. "We are not going to quarrel about a few 
petty items, seeing how well they have managed to dispose 
of the great bulk. Unlike Wrexham, Caernarvon has come 
out of the crucible of audit unscathed by the fire. All honour, 
we repeat, to it ! In giving its hundreds to the University 
College of Wales, it will be a notable example to future 
Eisteddfodau, not to spend their gains on their own petty 
local matters, but to regard national gatherings as bound in 
honour to promote national objects. 

The huge structure of the pavLlion is to be a permanent 
erection for the holding of meetings at Caernarvon. We sin- 
cerely hope it will answer its inteuded purpose. We are 
sadly afraid, however, that it will turn out " a white ele- 
phant". The constant repairs required in such a structure 
will form a serious drawback to its fìnancial success. 

iaelìtcUìö of îSooUö. 

Me.morials of Charlotte Williams-Wyxx. Edited l)y her 
SiSTER. Witli a Portrait. Longmans, Green, and Co., 
London. 1877. 

Any literary production written by a lady so closely con- 
nccted with the house of Wynnstay as Miss Wynn, must 
exact the deep interest of every one connected with the lite- 
rature of the Principality. It may not treat of tradition, or 
of language, nor yet of the rich poetry in which our old Celtic 
tongue abounds, and which contains such yaluable though 
unappreciated fragments of undeveloped history. It may 
relate to neither art nor science ; but we are sure that it wiU 
be something worthy of our perusal and study. The stock 
from which an author descends may not be a guaranty for 
bis genius or learning ; but we may be assured that the work 
of his pen will be replete with good taste, generous thought, 
and honourable feeling, and, in most cases, with the scholastic 
attainments which are the result of a high education. 

Who that ever knew the late Piight Honourable Charles 
Watkin Williams-Wynn, will for a moment doubt that of 
such a kind would be his daughter's efforts in literature ? The 
friend of Southey — his benefactor at a time when the world 
had not yet learut to ajopreciate his genius as a poet, or his 
almost unequalled talents as a writer of prose — ]Mr. Wynn, 
out of a not overflowing income, bestowed effectual lielp on 
the rising author, by giving him a no mean share of his own, 
thus enabling him to devote his energies to the works wliicli 
liave now beconie classic in our language. Xor was tliis a 
solitary instance of Mr. Wynn's generosity. Wales is deeply 
iudebted to him for a large share of his Indian patronage, 


wlieii lie was for years President of the Board of Control, 
We know of at least four sons in one faniily on whoni he 
bestowed cadetships in the Indian army. 

One little incident is deeply touchiug. Professor Ehnsley, 
a ripe scholar, and a genius as transcendent as Oxford ever 
nurtured in her lap, died in early manhood. His works had 
made him a high name in the University, and his death was 
deeply deplored. His last resting-place, however, remained 
unhonoured. Not a line marked the spot, and he seemed 
forgotten. One quiet Sunday moruing, as bells were answer- 
ing bells, calling to prayer, we wended our way to the Cathe- 
dral, as the University sermon was to be preached there on 
that day. Not a cap or gown was yet visible, and, until they 
were coUected for service, we wandered through the venerable 
pile, reading the inscriptions on the several monuments raised 
in honour of some of Oxford's most talented sons. All at 
once we came on a newly-erected monument of white marble. 
Large and of elegant form, it was as pure as tliough it had 
been of alabaster. It had been raised to the memory of poor 
Elmsley. One of Cambria's generous sons had, at his own 
cost, erected the memorial. At the close of the inscription, 
w^hich was worthy of the man wliose talents and virtues it 
recorded, was the simple sentence : — "Erected by his friend 
and school-fellow — C. W. AV. AV." The initials were too pecu- 
liar, as well as familiar, not to recal at once to our niind, 
" Charles Wathin Williams-Wynn." 

Nor was Mr. Wynn himself undervalued in Oxford. His 
portrait, a striking likeness, by the late Sir Martin Archer 
Shee, graces the dining-hall of Christchurch. 

How well do we remember him ! Tall and dignified, and 
of aristocratic bearing, his countenance was an index of the 
benevolence that leavened his whole constitution. When he 
and his brother, the late Sir Wathin Williams-Wyun, appeared 
togethcr in public, they were as Saul among^ the chiefs of 


Israel. Out-topping tliose aroimd tliem, tlieir dignified yet 
gentle demeanour won them tlie respect and liomage of every 

Witli all tliis loftiness and elevation of character, j\Ir. 
AVynn possessed a most genial temperament. He was face- 
tious and amusing in conversation, and wouhl occasionally 
descend to phiyfuhiess, and to smart, if not severe, repartee. 
After the sharp, though decisive contest for his Montgomery- 
shire seat in the election of 1831, when he was returned by a 
large majority, he invited the chief townsmen of Lhmfyllin 
to dinner and a day's shooting tlirough the pheasant pre- 
serves of LLangedwin. Sir Wathin was also present. Among 
the guests were two gentlemen wlio, with their other voca- 
tions, exercised that of preaching their Master's gospeL They 
belonged to the sect of the Independents. An attorney from 
Llanfyllin, wlio had also been invited, fancied he had found 
an opportunity of mortifying his dissenting neighbours ou the 
score of their religion ; and when the wine was circulatijig 
after dinner, he introduced the subject of baptismal registra- 
tion, saying that such were the informal registrations now 
made in every petty chapel through the country, that ere 
long it would be impossible to trace a pedigree or niahe out 
a title to any property in the Principality. Mr. Wynne 
discerned at once — as he knew his guests — for whom the 
covert shaft was intended. He turned round to the sj)eaker : 
"Yes," he said, "the question of registration is at the present 
time in a very unsatisfactory state. I have myself heard of 
a clergyman and his clerk so rechless of the parish register 
book, as to tear out its leaves to light their pipes with." The 
attorney, being thus quietly set down, his intended victims 
chuchled not a little. 

It may be asked, why dwell on the characteristics of tlie 
fatlier, when it is the daughter's book that calls for criticism ? 
AYe reply tliat, independently of his connexion with the 


authoress of the woi'k before us, liis identification witli Wales, 
her literature and her language, will not allow us to pass by 
the friend of Heber, Mackintosh, Southey, Henry Hallam, aud 
other such men, and especially in a work devoted to Welsh 

Miss Charlotte Williams-Wynn was a lady of extraordinary 
powers both of thought and expression. Had she devoted 
her talents to literature, she would have raised herself to the 
highest rank among tlie authors of her day. If her letters 
and unpremeditated journals are so replete with gems of 
thought as the present vohime indicates, we can well fancy 
the excellence to which her more fìnished productions would 
have reached. Let the reader open the volume wherever he 
will, he is sure to find something to instruct and refresh him 
— not the gleanings of antiquated sayings, nor yet proverbs 
and bye-gones dressed up anew, but fresli and sparhling 
thoughts, bubbling up in spontaneity and copiousness from 
the rich fountain of her own mind. Our readers must not 
fancy that we are speahing extravagantly. Our praise is by 
uo means excessive. To prove that it is not so, we bring the 
testimony of a few passages selected at random out of her 
book. How neatly expressed, for instance, is lier opinion of 
her friend, Mr. Eio, a Breton, who ever claimed kinship with 
the Welsh :— 

It is curious that a month ago I complained in this very book of being 
weary of theological discussions, and that no one spoke of religion from 
their hearts, but rather froui their head. A few days after I meet a 
man who talks only from his heart, and I am no longer weary. His 
faith is beautiful, and his convictiou is so deep and sincere, that it is 
most touching. His conversation was to me like some church bell — it 
always produced a feeling of devütiou in my miud. What cau I say 
stronger V 

How admirable, again, are the following remarhs on Goethe ! 
Writing from Llangedwin in October 1841, she says : — 


It would be diíRcult for me to express how mucli I delight in Goethe! 
My new edition is so small, that I can always carry a volume when I 
walk ; and he is the most companionable of authors, suiting all moods 
and all humours. Not to be obliged (as is the case with most writers) 
to wiud oue's self up to some particular key, before one cau enjoy and 
understand him, is to me a great charm. Then, the seemingly careless, 
concise manner in which he allows obseryations and opinions to flash oufc 
which open a new world of thought to one, is very fascinating. But 
the principal efîect his works have on me I cannot myself understand. 
He comforts, he consoles me ! How, I know not ; and it is a happiness 
which I never expected to have gained from theui ; for, as you know, 
his way of thinking was very diíîerent from all I have hitherto looked 
up to. 

Tlie descriptions of scenes in Eome, Florence, and Yenice, 
are more tlian commonly interesting ; Lut we must pass 
tliem by. We cannot, however, do so witli jNIiss WiHiams 
Wynn's reminiscences of Heidelberg; its beautiful valley 
seems to liave afforded her more enjoyment than any of the 
places she visited ; and she concludes her interesting narra- 
tive thus graphically and feelingiy : — 

I shall be very sorry to leave this place, which I enjoy intensely. 
My walks on tlie heath-covered hills far above the castle wiU remafn 
in my memory long after I have left them. Such walks are in truth, 
to use Biblical language, " times of refreshing". I have found tliat 
there is a deeper teaching in Nature than in any jjrofessor's book. The 
misfortune is, that one so seldom has the opportunity of coniing into 
communion with her. How I wish that vou were here, that we mieht 
talk over all the " thick-coming faucies" that are the result of my long 
moruings on the hill-tops ! 

We have rarely read a book written by a lady that bears 
so strongly the impress of a thoughtful mind as these " Memo- 
rials." The trivialities of every-day life are unnoticed, that 
she may grapple with intellectual pursuits of tlie highest 
kind. Xor are her effbrts in vain, although the subjects are 
oftentimes out of the reach of common minds, and such as 
engage the powers of the giants of literature. Wliat a host 
of bright names, too, forms the phalanx of her friends ! There, 


are Hegel, Bunsen, Yarnliagen von Ense, Döllinger, Monta- 
lembert, De Tocqueville, Lamartine, Carlyle, Mackintosh, 
Sydney Smith, Brookfield, Maurice, and others of equal status. 
That she also was appreciated by them we can have no doubt. 
The foUowing is Baroness Bunsen's testimony to her high 
worth, as given in a letter to one of her sisters. It is dated 
Carlsruhe, May 14, 1870 :— 

If I could but paint such a portrait of her as some of the ancient painters 
have left us of persons often without name, of whom we know nothing, 
and yet into whose very soul and life we seem to enter, whose capabili- 
ties of action, whose principles and feelings we take in by intuition, not 
needing further testimony, satisfied by internal evidence and intense 
conviction of moral power and equipoise — then, indeed, the demands of 
your affection might be duly met, and an image transmitted to posterity 
worthy of that enshrined in our memory. But what I can say in words 
is so tame and colourless, that I shrink from the attempt to note it 
down, and wish that some othér mind than my own would make clear 
to me the wliy and the Tiow she could be so feminine and yet so forciblc, 
so decisive and yet so mild ; so considerate of others, of their feelings, 
of their shortcomings, and yet so positively herself ; so dignified, not in 
manner and carriage only, but in elevation and grasp of mind, and 
yet no abstraction ; so full of humau sympathies, aud yet not melting 
away into unsubstantiality. 

We deeply regret our inability, from sheer want of space, 
to give larger extracts from these "Memorials." We can only 
express our wonder that amid her many ailments — for her 
héalth was never good — the authoress was enabled to serve 
her generation so faithfully, and yet preserve intact the vigour 
of mind and intellect displayed everywhere throughout this 
autobiography, even to its close. 

An excellent portrait faces the title, and the work, as is 
always the case with the publications of the Longmans, is 
beautifully printed, and forms an elegant volume. 

JÉl JJeL ^ :^ 2k. ììt. ^ 

rf^ f\-i j^ fP f^ *!* ^ 

Since the foregoing pages were written, we have received 
intelligence of the lamented death of ]\Irs. Lindesay, tlie 
editorof this volume. She was tlie last surviving daughter 


of the Iliglit Honourable C. W. W. Wynn, and tlie widow of 
John Lindesay, Esq., oí' Loughrea, in the county of Tyrone. 

Wliile Miss Charlotte Willianis-Wynn rests beneath the 
green, quiet pines of Arcaehon, her sister, Harriot Hester, 
lies ahnost under the shadows of our great metropolis, 
where — 

Daily the tides of life go ebbing and flowing beside her. 

How truly are the beautiful words of our Welsh poetess ex- 
emplified in their case : — 

They grew in beauty side by side, 

They fill'd one home with glee : 
Their graves are sever'd far and wide 

By moiint, and stream, and sea ! 

Grammadeg Cymrâeg gan Dayid Eowlands, B.A. (Dewi 
Mon) Athraw yn Ngiioleg Aberhonddu. Wrexham : 
[n.d.] Hughes & Son. 

We have perused this little book with considerable satis- 
faction. Grammar, as a science, while requiring a more 
exact study has of late enlarged its boundaries, and it now 
deals with questions which it neYer touched on in the past. 
It seems inclined also to treat words and phrases more logi- 
cally than heretofore. To keep pace then with the exigencies 
of the present day Mr. Eowlands has compiled his little manual, 
and as an epitome of Grammar, or rather a rudimentary 
treatise, we are bound to add, that the young Welsh student 
ought to feel deeply grateful to him — it will put him in the 
right way, and keep him free of the errors which are so pre- 
yalent in modern composition. AVe haYe been particularly 
pleased with the part deYoted to prefixes and affixes. With 
a few things, indeed, we do not agTce ; but they are of such 
little moment as compared with the excellencies of the ])ook 


in general, tliat we thinlc it almost a pity to mar our otlier- 
wise unqualified praise by mentioning them. 

The book is neatly got up by the publisher, Mr, Charles 
Hughes of Wrexham — its only fault is, that it is without 
date. We always look with suspicion on an undated publi- 
cation — it savours generally more of the 1)ookseller than of 
tlie author. This book deserves a date. We can prophesy 
its exliaustion long before it becomes antiquated. 

îLtterarp ^ínnoimcemeutö. 

OuR readers will be gratified to learn that the next part of 
Y Cymmrodor will contain a poetical translation, by Lord 
Aberdare, of " The Bard and the Cuckoo", a poem written by 
Owain Gruffydd in the early part of the last century. 

It is with no little satisfaction tliat we announce the early 
pi^blication of the Welsli-English Dictionary, so long in pre- 
paration, by the Eeverend D. Silvan Evans. While the 
work will be brought out under tlie auspices of the Honour- 
able Society of Cymmrodorion, the onus of publication will 
be taken up by a number of gentlemen connected with the 
Principality who are anxious for its appearance, knowing, as 
they do, its value for the opening up of the old Welsh litera- 
ture. The want of such a Lexicon has been long felt. The 
high character of the compiler, than whom no man living is 
more suited, both by talents and attainments, for the work, 
will, we trust, ensure it not only a large and remunerative 
circulation, but the gratitude of the Welsh student, whom 
we heartily congratulate on the prospect of possessing so 
valuable an instrument for tlie digging and delving into the 
old poetry and the ancient manuscripts. 



JUL Y 1878. 




The following translatiou of tlie Welsli Poem The Bard and 
the Cuclioo appeared in the columns of the Merthyr Guardian 
in 1835, with the signature H. A. Bruce (now Lord Aber- 
dare). The freshness of thonght with which the origiual 
poem teems has been admirably conveyed into English by 
this elegant translation. It demands, therefore, a place and 
perpetuation in the Cymmrodor on grounds iudepeudent of 
the eminence the translator has attained as statesman, aud 
of his conuection as President with the University College 
of Wales. 

The autlior of the Welsh poem was born in 1643, aud 
died in 1730. He was a native of Llanystumdwy, in Car- 
narvonshire, where he appears to have offìciated as parish 
clerk. Despite his humble origin and occupatiou, he was 
not only a poet of genuine merit, but is said to have accjuired 
much curious learning, especially archseological, according to 
the lights of that age, and eveu some knowledge of Greek 
and Latin. The reference to the age at which the Yirgiu 


98 , dialoCtUE betweex the 

IMary rlied, might appear to have proceeded from a Eoman 
Catholic pen. Bnt this supposition would not only be in- 
consistent with Owain's office of parish clerk, but the re- 
ference itself is quite in keeping with the character of the 
religious belief tlien prevailing in many parts of the Princi- 
pality. In the words of Mr. Lecky's excellent synopsis of 
the religious condition of Wales in the eighteenth century/ 
before the great outburst of Methodism : — " The Welsh were 
passionately musical, passionately wedded to tradition, and, 
like the Higlilanders of Scotland, they preserved many relics 
of Catholicism, and even of Paganisra. They crossed them- 
selves in sign of horror ; they blessed their beds in the name 
of the four E^ançfelists. When a dead man was lowered into 


his grave, liis relations knelt upon its border, and prayed that 
he might soon reach heaven. Many poetic legends were 
handed down from generation to generation, and were looked 
npon as almost as sacred as Scripture," 

The Bard. 

Goodraorrow^ to thee, sweet and beauteons bird ! 
Once more thy cheerful song at morn is heard ! 
Late, roaming o'er the primrose-spotted plain, 
I paused and listened for thy wish'd-for strain ; 
I asked — nor I alone — "WTiy sleeps the note 
"Which oft as spring-tide smiled was wont to float ? 
The Earth is fresh and green, the fields rejoice, 
And yet no valley echoes to thy voice ; 
The genial Sun roUs through the cloudless skies, 
And Flowers spring up ; arise, sweet bird, arise!" 

The CucJcoo. 
Thou gentle Bard ! oh ! why should I obey 
The voice that chides me for my lingering lay, 

^ England in the EtghteentTi Centnnj, vol. ü, pp. 602-3. 


Xor wait Hìs just cominand, wliose awful name 

None saye with deep-felt reverence may proclaim ? 

Por His I am, to Him my strains belong, 

Who gave that voice, who swells that vernal song î 

Like me, in deep humility of mind, 

Yield grateful homage, to his will resign'd ; 

Thou canst not learn of earthly things the cause ; 

Be mute and lowly, and revere His laws ! 

The Bard. 
Bird of the dark-brown hue ! and art thou come 
With summons stern to tear me from my home ? 
Say, dost thou chant thy monitory lay 
In sounds prophetic of my Life's last day ? 
And must those tones, just welcom'd with delight, 
Heralds of Death, my trembling soul afifright ? 
Say, must I now, while spring is swelling here, 
Quit these bright scenes. so lovely and so dear ? 
Oh, let me still, while yet the joy remaius, 
Gaze on these sunlit woods, these flowery plains ! 

The CucJcoo. 
Fair is the Earth, and glorious are the skies ! 
Yet seek not pleasnres which thy God denies ! 
In Him alone repose thy hopes and fears, 
And mark, oh mark ! how fleet thy number'd years ! 
Already threescore spriugs and three are past, 
And life is short — theu think, how^ near thy last ! 
Yes, at this age, oh Bard ! the blessed Maid, 
Christ's hûly Älother, in the grave was laid ; 
Grim Death smote her, who gave th' Immortal birth, 
The Judge of all, the Saviour of the Earth ! 

The Bard. 
And ere that time be come, no more the form, 

Erect and firm, resists as once the storni 1 



And ere tliose years be fled, tlie failing eye 

And shrunken sinew tell us "Man must die'!" 

Deign, bounteous Bird ! to guide my erring ways ; 

How shall I learn the number of my days ? 

Vast is my debt, and empty is my hand ; 

I dare not thus before my Saviour stand ! 

How when the trumpet breaks the death-like trance, 

Shall I, a sinner, meet His piercing glance ? 

The CucJcoo. 

For every foolish thought, for every crime, 

Eepent while yet for penitence is time ! 

Leave fancied pleasures, leave Earth's tinsel toys, 

For endless rapture, and undying joys ! 

So shall true Yirtue sootlie thy tranquil end, 

So Christ Himself shall on thy steps attend ; 

And, Victor o'er thy spiritual foes, 

Heaven shall be thine and Zion's blest repose. 

One boundless bliss, one stream of deep delight. 

While seraphs waft thee to thy Master's sight ! 

The Bard. 

Oh, God ! behold me by Thy mercy mov'd, 
Eegret the hateful faults which once I lov'd ! 
That I have sinn'd and spurn'd thy bounties high, 
I can not and I would not now deny ! 
Look on me, Father, for I am but weak ; 
Crush'd with the weight of woes, thy aid I seek ! 
Not through the merit of my own vile deeds, 
But lo ! for me the blessed Saviour pleads ! 
Oh ! by His latest pangs, His dying love, 
Eeceive thy suppliant to the realms above ! 



Bt PROFESSOR COWELL, of Cambridge, 

Dafydd ab Gwilym lias a peciüiar interest to an Englisli 
student of Welsli from the fact that he was so nearly coii- 
temporary with Chaucer (1328-1400), the Welsh poet having 
been born about 1 340, and having probably died shortly be- 
fore the end of the century. Their lives were, therefore, 
passed in the same stirring time. I need only mention a 
few of their contemporaries to show what a stirring time it 

Piienzi became tribune of Eome in 1347; he was killed 
tliere in 1354. The Popes retui-ned from Avignon to Eome 
in 1377; and the great schism of the West commenced in 
1378, which was only finally settled by the Council of Con- 
stance in 1418. Petrarch and Boccaccio were the gTeat 
luminaries in Italy, and the monk Barlaam first revived the 
hnowledge of Greek by his celebrated lectures on Homer at 
Avignon in 1339, where Petrarch was one of his pupils. Nearer 
home, the great event was the commencement of the hun- 
dred years' war between England and France in 1337. Crecy 
was fought in 1346; Poitiers in 1356, and all our possessions 
in Guienne were lost by 1377. It is this last series of 
events which alone has left some traces in the poetry of Ab 
Gwilym. For this great struggle was one of the things 
which first began to unite Wales and England into a living 
body, not a dead, mechanical mass ; for Englishmen and 
Welshmen fought side by side at Crecy and Poitiers. Lin- 
gard expressly mentions that among Edward the Third's in- 
' Read before the Cyinmrodoriou, May 29tb, 1878. 


fantry tliere was always a large proportion of Welshmen, 
armed witli lances and dressed in uuiform at tlie king's ex- 
pense: — " Tliese, proved of great utility whenever the country 
was mountainous and ill-adapted to the operation of cavahy." 
We can still hear the distant echoes of these French wars in 
Ah Gwilym, as, for instance, in his Ode to the Ship which 
bore Morfudd's hushand to France, when he sailed in com- 
pany with a detachment of tbree hundred men under Hhys 
Gwgan, to join the army of Edward III, probably in the 
later war of 1369 or 1370. Ab Gwilym is beHeved to have 
died before the stormy days of Owen Glendwr began under 
Henry IV, as no allusion to them occurs in his poems. 

Of Ab Gwilym's own life we have many legendary details, 
but I doubt how far they are to be accepted as historicaUy 

He was no doubt the illegitimate scion of a noble faniily, 
and he was brought up by his uncle Llewelyn ab Gwilym ; 
and, when he grew up, he lived at Maesaleg in Monmouth- 
shire, in the house of his kind patron Ifor Hael, a relation of his 
father. He seems to have been líbr Hael's steward as weU as his 
bard ; and he is also said to have acted at one time as tutor 
to his daughter; but, as the youug tutor and pupil became 
attached, the daughter was placed in a nunnery in Anglesea. 
It is remarhable, however, that this suj)posed amour did not 
break oft the intimate relations betweeu the poet and his 
patron. His poems are chieíly amatory, and it is not, there- 
fore, surprising that the legends of his Hfe chiefly relate to 
the various lacües whose names are more or less celebrated 
in his writings. The three most promineut names are Dyddgu, 
Hunydd, and, above aU, ]\forfudd, to whom 147 odes are 
said to be devoted; but it is curious that in Ode clxvi, 
where he reckons up the names of his difí'erent mistresses 
just as Cowley does in his Chronicle, Morfudd merely appears 
as one of the crowd, with no special niark to distinguish lier 


from the rest. Most of tlie legends naturally are connected 
with her name. She was the daughter of ISIadog Lawgam, 
a gentleman of Anglesea ; and she and the poet are said to 
have been married by the bard jNIadog Benfras in the wood ; 
but her relations, not approving the union, married her to a 
weahhy decrepit old man, Cynfrig Cynin. The poet con- 
stantly lampoons him as Eiddig and Bwabach in his odes, 
and frequently describes himself as still meeting Morfudd 
clandestinely in the woods. 

These traditions regarding Dafydd ab Gwilym's relations 
with Morfudd are very singular ; and it is not to be won- 
dered at that they have been geuerally accepted as historical 
certainties. Many of them seem to be supported by passages 
in his own poems ; and if these poems are to be regarded as 
autobiographical sketches, they may well be quoted to throw 
some little light on the obscurity of the poet's life. But are 
we justified in tlms using thern ? Was the poet, when he 
wrote them, laying bare the secrets of liis heart to us, or was 
he only deceiving us by a j)retended confidence w4iich really 
meant nothing ? 

I must here remind my hearers that these legendary detaüs 
of a great poet's life are, by no means, peculiar co Ab Gwilym. 
Similar traditions cluster in abundance round many others. 
I need only specify here Yirgil, Shakespeare, and the Persian 
poet, Háfiz; and in each of these three cases we can dis- 
tiuctly prove that they are mostly but the idle gossip which 
naturally gathers round a great name when there are few or 
uo certain facts to supply its place. Men caunot bear to be 
utterly ignorant concerning the details of that life in which 
they are so deeply interested ; and stories seem to rise up 
spontaneously in an uncritical age, none knows how, to 
supply the want of actual biography, just as it is the 
loneliness and the silence which make us seem to hear 


" Airy tongues which syllable men's names 
Oii sauds and shores and desert wildernesses." 

Biit I tliink in Ab Gwilym's case, we liave soine very 
strong reasons wliich may well make us hesitate before we 
accept these extraordinary adventures as actual facts. These 
stories are said, in the preface to tlie first edition of the poet's 
works, to rest chiefly on local tradition, and especially as col- 
lected by lorwerth Morganwg. But, on the other hand, we 
liave the distinct testimony which comes through the bard 
Watkiu Powel (1580-1620), that Ab Gwilym was a very 
quiet man, and particulaiiy reserved in conversation ; and we 
also have in Provençal literature a close parallel which, I 
thiiik, may help us to understand mucli in the poet's life, 
which, in itself, seems extravagant and immoral. I trust that 
my audience wili liere kiiidly bear with me while I digress 
for a few minutes into this little-trodden field, as I hope to 
fìud there some interesting illustrations for the subject of my 
lecture to-night. 

Provençal literature was in its giory between 1150 and 
1290 ; and the poetry of the troubadours for a time gave the 
law of taste to all Europe. We can trace their influence in 
the eaiiy literature of Spain, Italy, Prance, Germany, and Eng- 
land ; and, to quote HaUam's words, " the soiigs of Provence 
were undoubtedly the source from whicli poetry for niany 
centuries derived a great portion of its habitual language". 
The troubadours at one time fiUed very much the same posi- 
tion at the haUs of the nobles of Languedoc and Provence, 
which the bards fìUed in Wales ; they were not only liberally 
rewarded for their poems, but they frequently enjoyed the 
intimate friendship of their patrons. Even men of knightly 
birth were sometimes troubadours; and we expressly read 
of Eaimbaut de Vaqueiras tliat he was originally a musiciau 
or jongleur, which was an inferior rank to tlie troubadour ; 
but he attached himself to the court of Boniface, Marquis of 
Montserrat, who made him a kiiii'lit. 


Kow one of the inost strilcing features of Provençal poetry 
is tlie fact tliat nearly erery love-poem, — and these form one 
lialf of the literature, — is addressed to the sister or ^vife of 
the poet's patron. This strange form of homage became tlie 
universal fashion of the courts ; and it was considered a higli 
lîonour to the lady who was immortalised hy the poet's praise. 
Occasionally, there is reason to fear, these relations led to 
evil ; but in the vast majority of cases the}^ were perfectly 
innocent ; aud, however the poet might siug of his lady and 
boast of her kindness, it was the liead, not the heart, which 
dictated the verses, and there was an impassable line Í3xed 
by fashion as well as virtue, which separated the proud lady 
of the castle from the troubadour, however gifted and re- 
nowned. We read in the biography of Eaimbaut de Yaquei- 
ras that, for years, lie had celebrated the beauty of Beatris, 
the sister of his patron Boniface, and wife of the Lord of Del- 
carat. He liad given her the name Bd-cavalier iu his poems, 
in allusion to his having once seen her playing with her 
brother's sword, when, thinhing that she was unobserved, 
she had unsheathed it, and amused herself with making 
passes in the air. After awhile he, in some way, ofíended 
the lady, and she withdrew her favour from him ; until her 
brother, the Marquis, found out the cause of the poet^s dis- 
tress, and himseK begged her to receive him into her favour 
again. Such an incident would liave been impossible, if this 
'chivalrous homage had liad the slightest tendency to be- 
coming a serious passion. In one of his poems he represents 
the lady as saying to him : — " Thou art such a good knight, 
that there is no lady in the world who woiüd not williugiy 
clioose thee as her friend. Thus I have seen Madanie de 
Saluces accept the love of Pierre Yidal; the Countess of 
Burlatz, that of Arnaud de ]\Iarveil ; jNIadame Marie de Ven- 
tadour, that of Gaucelm Faidit ; and the Yiscountess of 
MarseiUes, the wife of the Lord Barral, that of Folquet of 


The resemblance between Ab Gwilym's poems and the 
chansons of the troubadours, will strike anyone who compares 
the two. Ab Gwilym is a greater poet than any troubadour, 
and his lyre has some deeper notes than theirs; but the 
essence of their music is the same. 

I have also noticed some curious minor resemblances. 
Thus, Diez expressly notices that a superficial hnowledge of 
the worhs of Ovid, especially of his Metamorphoses, comprises 
all the classical learning of the troubadours ; and, I believe, 
Ovid will similarly be found to be responsible for all Ab 
Gwilym's classical allusions. 

Some sixteen pages in Ab Gwilym's works are taken up 
with the " Cy wyddau yr Ymryson" between him and Gruffydd 
Grug; these form a curious parallel to the tcnsons of the 
Provençal poets, where two rival poets meet to discuss some 
point of love or politics, with the fiercest personal spite and 

Similar to these, and easily springing from them, are the 
dialogues between two lovers or two rivals, These, of course, 
difí'er from the former, because they are the work of one poet, 
not of two ; but the vivacity of the dialogue is the same iu 
both. There are several very celebrated Provençal poems of 
this kind, as, for instance, the dialogue between Eaimbaut 
d'Orange and his mistress Beatrix, Countess of Die ; and that 
between Peyrols and LoYe^ who reproaches him for haviiig 
deserted his service ; and that between Eaimbaut de Vac[uei- 
ras and a Genoese lady, who remains obdurate to his flat- 
teries. Ab Gwilym has several dialogues of this kind. I 
need only mention here the dialogue with a maiden (No. 
CLXXx), that under a maiden^s window (No. CLii),the wonder- 
ful dialogue between the bard and liis shadow (No. clxxi), 
and that with the cuckoo (JSTo. ccx), as well as that with the 
same bird (No-. Lxx), when it tells him that Morfudd is mar- 
ried. One of the most curious parallels which 1 have uoticed 


between Ab Gwilym and tbe Provençal poets, may be acci- 
dental in itself; but I mention it because it so singularly 
ilhistrates tbe comparison wbicb I bave tried to institute be- 
tween tbem. In Poem xcix Ab Gwilym describes Bwa-bacb 
as sailing to Prance witb a detacbment of tbree hundred men, 
under tbe command of Pthys Gwgan^ to join tbe army of 
Edward III, and be utters bis wisbes tbat be may be 
drowned on his voyage or hilled by a French 'arcber. I 
q[uote the lines in Mr. Artbur J. Johns' translation : — 

" Soon shalt thou pay the debt I owe 
To Jealousy, the poet's foe. 
Like bird of ocean he shall whirl 
From wave to wave aud shoal to shoal, 
As the wild surges fiercely cuii 
Around the shores, O sordid soul ! 
May Hwynyn, demon of the sea, 
Thy headsman on the voyage be ! 
And thou, cross-bowman, true and good, 
Thou shooter with the faultless wood, 
Send me an arrow througli liis brain, 
(Who of his fate will e'er complain?) — 
Haste with thy stirruji-fashioued bow, 
And lay the hideous varlet low ! " 

Guillaume Adbémar has a similar poem, in wbich he ím- 
plores Alplionse IX, tlie King of Lëon (who died in 1230), to 
start on a crusade. " If King Alpbonse, tbe best count in 
Christendom, would but raise an army against tbe Saracens, 
and carry with hini tbe jealous busband wlio heei^s my lady 
a close prisoner, tliere is no sin of wbich be sbould not get 
tlie pardon ! " 

A portion of bis Odes are so like Provençal chansoìis in 
their subject-matter, that one might almost believe they were 
direct imitations. Tbese are tbose somewhat wearisome semi- 
metaphysical disquisitious on tbe nature and lineage of love, 
the golden hair of Morfudd, " Yr Hiraeth", etc. Tbese are the 
staple of Provençal poetry ; but in Ab Gwilym tbey are only 
a very small portion. 


I have already saicl tliat we find abundant traces of the in- 

fluence of tlie troubadour poetry of Provence in France, Ger- 

many, and Italy. In France, we especiaUy find it in the 

works of tlie early lyric poets of the thirteenth century ; in 

the course of which century at least 136 song-writers are 

known to have flourished, Their chansons are modelled, as 

to form, on those of Provence; and in many cases the subject- 

matter also clearly reveals tlie troubadour influence. In 

Germany, we find it in the works of the Minnesingers. I 

have no time to enter upon this at length this evening ; but 

I would refer any of my audience who would wish to ex- 

amine the question further to a very interesting article in 

the Cornliill Magazine for June 1876, on Walter von der 

Yogelweide, the Minnesinger, who lived between 1170 and 

1235. I read the article with great interest, and I was espe- 

cially struck by the strong resemblauce between the German 

poet and Ab Gwilym. Each had the same deep love of 

nature, especially in Spring and May; and some of the 

poems translated in the article might have passed for trans- 

lations from Ah Gwilym. Of course in this case there could 

be no direct communication ; but tlie resemblance was the 

family likeness between two sisters, each reproducing the 

features of the common parent, but modifying them to suit 

her own individual type of development. In Italy, the 

troubadour influence is still more marked ; the word trovare 

was constantly used as the Italian for " writing poetry", and 

tromtore for " a poet" ; and in Dante and Petrarch we have 

the very apotheosis of the Provençal idea. The poetry of 

Provence, at its best, was feeble and artifìcial ; it was a deli- 

cate hot-house plant nursed by court patronage and shielded 

from all the rough winds of real life, and striking its roots 

into a soil of fancy and sentiment, so that its shoots always 

betray tlie original weakness of the stock, 

" Invali<lique patrum referunt jejuuia nati," 


But in Italy the transplanted slioot íbund a more fertile soil, 
and struck its roots down deep into the very heart of human 
nature and reality ; and though Dante's " Beatrice" and Pe- 
trarch's " Laura" were originally the reflections of Provençal 
poetry, the genius of Dante and Petrarch have created them 
anew, and made tliem symbols of beauty for alb time. And 
so Ab Gwilym seems to me to have similarly borrowed the 
Provençal idea, and then reproduced it as a new creation by 
his own genius. We can thus trace in him a new line of 
Provençal influence, derived, I suppose, through France or 
Italy. I have already pointed out some of tlie points of 
resemblance; and, I believe, that it is also this Provençal in- 
fluence which must bear the blame of the somewhat immoral 
shadow whicli hangs over parts of Ab Gwilym's poetry. The 
essential feature of so much of the best of Provençal song 
centres round the poet's poetical afîection for a married 
woman ; and, I think, we trace tliis evil influence in Dante 
and Petrarch as well as in Ab Gwilym. May we not trace it 
further still ? Am I wrong in suggesting that Shakes23eare's 
Sonnets are the latest and, perhaps^ greatest instance of this 
Provençal influence ? For my own part, I do not believe in 
the legends spuu by critical Arachnes, out of the slender 
and obscure hints of Shakespeare's Sonnets, any more than 
I believe in the real love of Ab Gwilyni for Ifor Hael's 
daughter, or for Morfudd ; in both, I believe, it was the 
working of the spell thrown by the magic of Provence, — it 
was the glamour exercised by that evil Vivien, which, for 
a time, held even Shakespeare under its fatal sway. 

Ab Gwilym is said to have introduced the cyvjì/dd into 
Wales. If so, T canuot but think that this is an echo of Pro- 
vençal poetry, as the chanson is generally one continuous 
poem and is written in rhyming lines of eight or seven 
syllables ; but it is possible that the cywydd may be far older 
than his time and a native product of Welsh invention. Of 


course it is interestiiig to trace tlie early history of aiiy new 

experiment in poetry, to watcli tbe progress of the new idea 

as it passed on from the land of its birth to a foreign soil ; 

but, after all, this is only a secondary matter, as compared 

with the much more real interest which is associated with 

the poet's own history and character. Dafydd ab Gwilym 

interests us this evening as the great poet of Wales ; and it 

is this which is to be our special subject. I cannot help be- 

lieving that he borrowed tbe first idea of his new form of 

poetry from the troubadours of Provence ; but, Hhe all great 

poets, he reissued the okI bullion as a new coinage, stamped 

with his own image and mint-mark. No one can read his 

poems without being struck by the originality aud native 

Yigour which everywhere pervade them ; nothing seems bor- 

rowed or second-hand ; everything speaks of the master's 

own hand and worhinanship. 

I -was very much struch, from the first, with the entire 

absence of any references to Classical mythology in his 

poems. The troubadour poets, as I have said^ seldom go 

further than Ovid for their Classical stories, but the Meta- 

morphoses supply them with many a poetical allusion ; Ab 

Gwilym hardly contains one. He knows Ovid by name; 

thus, he says, in his poem to the nightingale (No. Lxxxiv), 

" prid yw ei chof gan Ofydd", " valuable is her mention in 

Ovid", and he calls the thrush " bard of Ovid's faultless 

song" ; but almost the only definite allusion to Classical 

mythology which I have noticed is that found in Ode xxix, 

wliere he compares Morfudd to tlie three famed heroines of 

ancient days : Polyxena, Deidamia, and Helen, 

" Yr hon a beris yr ha 
A thrin rhwng Groeg a Throia." 

He has a romantic literature to refer to, as the heroic back- 
ground behind the present ; but it is the age of Arthur aud 
the Ruights of the Eound Table, not that of Thebes or Troy. 


His Elen, for instance, is generally the Elaine of the Arthiir- 
ian legend, not Menelaus' faithless wife ; and his mythology 
is drawn froni the earliest Mabinogion and faint remini- 
scences of Druidical superstitions, not from the foreign myths 
of Greece and Rome. Some of these references to old British 
legends are very striking. Thus we have Myrddyn's ship of 
glass referred to more than once. Thus in Ode XLVii, he says, 
of the grove of broom (y banadl-lwyn) : — 

" I will make here to allure her 
An enclosure of the green delicate broom, 
As Myrddyn, with his love-inspired architecture, 
Made a house of glass for his paramour." 

In the same poem we have a beautiful allusion to the 

Mabinogi of Manawyddan fab Llyr, where Dyfed is covered 

by a mist through the enchantment of Llwyd the son of 

Kilcoed : — 

" And to-day in the green wood 
Such shall be this court of mine beneath the broom." 

In other Odes we have references to Hu Gadarn's oxen and 
Neifion's ship; but one of the most beautiful is that in Ode 
CLXXXiii, " Achau y dylluan'^, which seems to me a master- 
piece in its way. We often hear those old lines of Barne- 
field's to the nightingale highly praised, — and they weU 
deserve it : — 

" Ah, thought I, thou mourn'st ìn vain, 
None takes pity on thy pain ; 
Senseless trees, they canuot hear thee, 
Ruthless beasts, they wiU not cheer thee ; 
King Pandion, he is dead, 
AU thy friends are lapped in lead. 
All thy fellow birds do sing 
Careless of thy sorrowing : 
Even so, poor bird, like thee 
None alive wiU pity me." 

But beautiful as the lines are, they seem to me far inferior 
to Ab Gwilym's splendid address to the owl, where he makes 


lier shame Iiim for his rude and thoughtless insolence, by 
reminding him of her ancient ^voes, how that she, now a 

" Creature of the world of gloom, 
Owlet with the dusky plume," 

""Destined by its fate 
To endure the agony 
Of sad peuance, and the hate 
Of all birds beneath the sky," 

had once been the Blodeuwedd or "flower face", of old romance 
— of whom we read in the tale of Math, the son of Math- 
onwy, that " they took the blossoms of tlie oak and tlie 
blossoms of the broom, and the blossoms of the meadow 
sweet, and produced from them a maiden, the fairest and 
most graceful that man ever saw. And they baptized her, 
and gave her the name of Blodeuwedd." But at last, for 
her falseness, Gwdion, the magician, changed her into 
an owl ; " because of the shame thou hast done, thou shalt 
never shew thy face in the light of day henceforth; and that, 
through fear of all otlier birds. For it shall be their nature 
to attack thee, and to chase thee from wheresoever they may 
fìnd thee." 

One of the finest of these old allusions seems to me to be 
that in Ode ccviii, where the poet laments his ill-luck to be 
lost in the dark night on the hills, until he is guided into 
safety by the appearing of the stars. He describes himself 
as caught in the mountains as in a trap : — 

" Like luckless warrior whom his foes 
Fiercely in hollow gleu euclose, 
I crossed myself, and gave a cry 
Of terror and of agony." 

And then this suggests the splendid comparison of the 
marshalled hosts of the midnight sky : — 

"Every pair exactly arranged, 
The battle of Camlan re-euacted in the broad gray sky ! " 


I have said that Ab Gwilym was a conteraporaiy of 
Chaucer, and I do not dovibt that a careful comparison of 
the two poets wouhl bring out some interesting iüustrations 
for each. I wül only mention three or four, but they may 
be taken as specimens of many others, which would probably 
reward a more careful search. Thus iu the poem on the 
thunder whicli scared away Morfudd from her trysting-place 
we have guns mentioned : — 

"I went wild aud ray liair all awry 
At the roaring of the gun of the air." 

" Gwyllt yr awn a'm gwallt ar ŵyr 
Gau ruad (jwn yr awyr." 

Guns are said to have been first used by Edward III, at 

the battle of Crecy, in 1346, and Chaucer uses gonnc in the 

House of Fame : — 

" Ywent this foule trumpes soun 
As swift as pellit out of gonne 
When fire is in the poudir ronne," 

and the Legend of Good Women (Cleopatra) : — • 

" With grisly soune out goith the grete gonne." 

So, too, Barbour (whose date is 1375) talks of crahMs of 
luer for cannon in Book xix, 399, and gynisfor crakMs, i.e. — 
engines for noises, in Book xvii, 250. 

Ab Gwilym's allusion is therefore an early contemporary 
one, and is interesting for literary history. 

Again, Ab Gwilym several times mentions siopau Sieh as 
his very ideal of splendour and magnificence ; the phrase 
shews how the fame of the glories of Cheapside had spread 
even in those days to Wales, and it is paralleled by such 
liues as those in Chaucer, where he describes the landlord of 
the Tabard as " a fairer burgeis is there non in Chepe", or, 
when he describes the merry cook : — 

" He loved bet the tavern than the shoppe, 
For whan ther any riding was in Chepe, 
Out of the shoppe thither wold he lepe, 



And til tliat he had all the sight ysein 
And danced wel, he would not come agein." 

In Chaucer's Nonnes Preestes Talc \ve read of tlie wido\v's 

cock : — 

" Wel sikerer was his crowing in his logg 
Than is a clok or any abbey orlogg." 

The first striking clock is said to have been made hy De 
Wick for Charles V, of France, about 1364 ; and it is an 
interesting ülustratiou of contemporary history to notice two 
references to this newly discovered invention in Ab Gwilym. 
Thus in the poem (No. CLix), to the owl, he calls it : — 
" Cloc eìhjU, ceìliog gwylliaid''\ 

" The goblin's clock, the witches' cock", if cloc does not here 

mean "bell"; and in ccxvi we have a poem to the Awrlais 

in the monastery, which woke the poet when he was dreamiug 

of his mistress : — 

'• Shame on that clock on the side of the embankment, 
With its black face, which woke me. 
Worthless be its head and its tongue, 
And its two ropes and its wheel ; 
Its weights, its dull balls, 
Its enclosures, and its hammer, 
Its ducks ever thÌDking that it is day, 
And its restless mills. 
('ncÌYÌl clock, its noise is crazy, — 
Drunken cobler, cursed be its face ! 
With its false entrails fuU of lies 
And its dog's joints knocking against a bowl ! 
A double curse be on its clatter 
For briuging me here from heaven." 

Again, in the prologue to Chaucer's Millers Tale, the 

drunken miller is described : — 

" He n' old avalen neither hood ne hat 
Ne abiden no man for his curtesie, 
But in Pilate's vois he gan to crie ; " 

i.e. — in such a rough voice as Pilate vv'as represented with in 
the mediíçval mysteries. I think I liave found an exactly 

DAFYDD AB rnvTT.v^r. 115 

pnriTllel i^lirase in Ab Gwilyni, for, in one of liis niany 
poems of invective against tlie owl (Xo. CLix), he describes 
her : — 

" She was like an ape's neck for causing terror, 
A thin hoarse little wonian for calling, 
The screaming of the heron of the Aran, 
Like the man with the bag every word she sings." 

(Gwr y god hoh gair n ffàiì.) 

I can only suppose that this refers to the Judas Iscariot in 
the sanie plays. I remember to have heard that the bag was 
the great mark of the traitor among the twelve disciples in the 
representation of the Ammergau play, and that the character 
was a very unpopuL^r one^ and it was very difficult to find 
anyone wlio would undertake it. 

Another point of a different nature in which Ab Gwilyni 
illustrates Chaucer is the strong animosity which both feel 
to the monks and begging friars. Chaucer is always sup- 
posed to have been favourable, like his great patron the Duke 
of Lancaster, to the movement for reform begun by Wickliffe; 
and his poems abound with satirical allusions to the ecclesi- 
astical abuses current in his time. Ab Gwilym is a staunch 
believer in the doctrines of the Eoman Catholic Church, Ì3ut 
he is a bitter enemy of the priests and monks. Several of 
his Odes are composed of dialogues between himself and 
some gray brother (brawd llwyd), and the dialogue generally 
ends in some fierce invectives against the whole order. These 
are interesting, because they shew how liostility to the arro- 
gance and corruption of the ecclesiastical authorities was 
spreading through Wales as w^ell as England, 150 years 
before the Eeformation movement began in earnest. At the 
same time Ab Gwilym is a devout Catholic in his wiy ; and 
he is fond of introducing allusions to the gorgeous ritual of 
the medi8eval Church. Thus in one of his poems to the 
moon (No. Li), he addresses it thus : — 


llíi l.)AFVL»D AB (iWILY.M. 

'^ From me nor treachery nor time 

Nor autumn's blast at random driyen, 
Can snatch thy guardian light sublime ; 
Blessed wafer, lif ted up iu heaven." 

(Afrlladeii o nen y ncf.) 

There are several beautiful passages wliere he compares 

the bircls in the wood, siuging in all the ecstasy of the early 

summer, to the quire of some great cathedral, and the thrush 

and the nightingale are the miuistering priests : — 

" I heard the thrush read to the parish boldly 
The gospel withou!; stammering ; 
He raised for us on the laills there 
The wafer made of a fair leaf ; 
And the beautiful nightingale, slender and tall, 
From the corner of the glen near him, 
Minstrel of the dingle, sang to a hundred, 
Aud the bells of the mass continually did ring." 

If I were asked to describe in a few words Ab Gwilym's 
position among the renowned poets of the -\vorld, I should 
characterise him as especially the poet of the fancy. He oc- 
casionally has bursts of imagination, and occasionally he has 
tender touches of pathos and sentiment ; but if my view of 
his genius at all approaches to the reality, we ought not to 
expect much imagination or pathos in such an artificial 
world of poetry as that in which he lived. Ab Gwilym was 
not a Burns, and we must not look in him for those intense 
utterances of passion whicli we find in Burns. Aristophanes 
tells us that old ^schylus' lines were so weighted with 
meaning, that a hundred Egyptian slaves could not lift them ; 
but we should look in vain in Ab Gwilyni for such concen- 
trated outbursts as these. 

Ab Gwilym's world is a bright world of fancy ; and we 
must not bring into it the stern laws and feelings of daily 
life. We read his odes hopelessly wrong, if we try to date 
them and to localise them, instead of leaving them in their 
original vagueness, — idylls which happened in the Greek 


Calends, and some uumapped region of Arcadia. iSTo poet, 
wLo really felt as Burns felt, could send his message by a 
trout, an eagle, or a swan ; this imagery belongs essentially to 
íìction, aud tliose have wholly mistahen his meaniug who 
would reduce it to fact. In fact, we have here one of Ab 
Gwilym's peculiar triumphs as a poet of the fancy, that he 
struck out an entirely new kind of poetry. The idea of 
sending animals and birds and fìshes on a love-errand has 
been common enough iu Welsh poetry since his time ; it has 
been, in fact, the story of Cohimbus and the egg over again ; 
but who thought of the idea before him ? Persian poets 
continuaUy send a message by the hree^e; but they have never 
gone beyond this very obAÌous impressment of natural agents. 
One of the most celebrated Sanshrit poems is the Meghadúta, 
and its very celebrity shows how new and unexpected was 
the appeal which it made to the sympathies of the Indian 
public. Rálidása there describes a demigod who has been 
banished from his home in the Himalaya, for a year, to a 
mouutain in the south of ludia. Whüe wanderiug in his 
place of exile, he observes the great clouds rising from the 
Indian Ocean, which, at the beginning of the rainy season, 
are borne along by the steady current of the southern mon- 
soon, and traverse the whole extent of the Indian Peninsula 
from south to north, and finally pour their watery treasures 
on the slopes of the Himalayas. He invokes this huge mass 
of vapour, and, in a highly poetical address, describes the 
path which it is destined to travel, as it passes over the 
various classical spots of Hindu antiquity ; and he finally 
transmits by the cloud a tender message of affection to his 
wife, whom he has left in the deep recesses of the mountains 
of tlie north. But these addresses to natural agents are 
only rare and occasional in other literatures. Ab Gwilym 
was the first poet wlio raised these isolated attempts into a 
new kind of poetry. 


But it is essential to tliese addresses tliat tliey sliould 
speak tlie language of the fancy, not the iniagination. If we 
weight our inanimate or irrational messenger too severely, 
he will faint 

" With the burden of an honour 
Luto Avhich he was not born." 

It is just the same here as in fable. Fable has been a de- 
lightful extension of the world of human experience ; and 
daily life seems to gain new wisdom and intuition when it 
reads human virtues and vices in the gTotesque disguises of 
the animals in tlieir native woods and morasses. But the 
deception loses its charm if the fable rises to too higli a level, 
if we make our animals aspire to solve other problems than 
those of selfishness and animal ingenuity ; because these latter 
alone belong to the true plane of animal cunning, and we 
are turning our animals into men in disguise if we put those 
higher thoughts into their mouths. 

In the same way it is fatal to tlie poetry of the fancy, if it 
ever makes us utter Milton's words in Lycidas : — 

" That strain I heard was of a Itiylur mood." 

It is essential to the poetry of the fancy that it should 
keep to its own level; and Ab Gwilym rarely allows the 
poetic Äwen to carry him beyond tlie limits of the fanciful 
world of idyllic poetry in which he felt that his genius found 
its true home. 

To iUustrate my meaning, I will dwell somewhat at length 
on two of his poems, Nos. xxxii and xxxiii, in which the 
poet represents himself as actually slain by the cruelty of 
his mistress. In the former he describes himself as buried 
in the woods, and I am glad that I cau quote from such an 
excellent translation as that by Mr. Johns : — 

" To-inorrow shall I in my grave be laid, 
Aniid the leaves and floating forest shade 


Iii yon ash grove — my yerdaut birchen trees 
Shall be the mourners of my obser|UÌes ! 
My spotless shroud shall be of summer flowers, 
My cofBn hewn from out the woodland bowers ; 
The flowers of wood and wild shall be my pall, 
^ly bier eight forest brauches green and tall ; 
And thou slialt see the white gulls of the maia 
In thousands gather there to bear my traiu ; 
And e"en the very wood-mice shall be seen 
To haste and join the sad funereal scene ! 
The thicket of the rocks my church shall be, 
Two nightingales (enchantress, chosen by thee), 
The sacred idols of the sanctuary ! " 

Tliis is all iiure idyllic faucy ; it is batliecl iu tlie warm 

suushiue of poetry, but it is uot deep passiou ; there is 


" Xo voice of weeping heard and loud lament." 

One cau hardly read this beautiful eft'usiou of faucy ^vith- 
out being reiuiuded of those liues of Webster, the " Laud- 
dirge",of which Charles Lamb says : — " I nerer sa\v auythiug 
like this fuueral dirge, except the ditty which remiuds Fer- 
dinaud of his drowued father in the Tempest. As that is of 
the water, watery ; so this is of the earth, earthy." 

'' Call for the robin redbreast and the wren, 

8iuce over shady groves they hover, 

And with leaves and flowers do cover 
The frieudless bodies of unburied men. 

Call unto his funeral dole, 

The ant, the field-mouse, and the mole ; 
To rear him hillocks that shall keep him warm, 
And (when gay tombs are robbed) sustain no harm." 

Tlie other is the poem where he supposes that Ifor Hael's 
daughter, in tardy repentance for haviug caused his death by 
lier obduracy, will set off on a pilgrimage froui her monastery 
in Anglesea to St. David's. This poem has never been really 
translated into English before (as lolo Morgauwg's so-called 
translation is au outrageous paraphrase), aud I venture to 
give a faithful \-ersiou of this l)eautiful poem. Tlie origi- 

120 DA1-Y])D AB GWJLYiM. 

ual exactly, to my iiiiiid, represents Ab Gwilym's genins, — 
the ever-varying faucy, the liglit touch, the half pathetic 
turn; but even here \ve can cletect the absence of that deeper 
passion which would have abruptly stopped his light corus- 
cations of fancy, and would have rather made him veil his 
face in silent anguish with Agamemnon in the old picture 
of Timanthes : — 

Ab Gwilym, xxxin. 

The Laúìj's Pilgrimage to St. David''s. 

" The nun has started on her way, 
The silent luaid, her vows to pay 
Before St. David in his shrine, 
His mother, and the host divine ; 
Fain would her heart conceal her woes, .- 
Bright dawn of comfort where she goes. 
She starts from Môn, iu hope to win 
A tardy pardon for her sin, 
For cruel words of cold disdain, 
And a true heart unjustly slain. 
All penitent and woe-begone, 
She journeys downcast and alone, 
Pale are her cheeks and sad her brow, — 
Her poet's songs are silent now ! 
May Menai spread a fostering care, 
Its dangerous tide run low for her ; 
May famed Traeth Mawr spell-bound retreat 
And ebb away before her feet ; 
May Bychan Draeth be wellnigh dry, 
And Ertro flow unrufíied by. 
Glad would I pay the Barmouth fee, 
That she might safely ferried be ; 
l^ysyny, with thy stream like wine, 
Leave a small strip of wavelets nine ; 
But Dyfi's shiyeriug waves are deep, — 
Say, wiU the maid her purpose keep ? 
Rheidiol, for honour's sake give heed, 
And let thy streara flow soft as niead ; 
Nor, Ystwyth, try to stop her way, — 
Swell thy deep waters as they may. 


Acron, tliy flood's impetiious niass 
Rolls boiling on, — but let her jjass. 
Aud Teifi, stream surpassed by noue, 
GoBsamer-gleaming in the sun, 
Graut lier safe escort, succour seud. 
Tliat she uiay reach her journey's eud. 
^Mother, if in St. David's pile 
Thou hast thy far-famed doniieile, 
In piirple clothed of costliest dye, — 
List to my interceding cry. 
She killed me, as too ■well I know, — 
But then the crime was long ago ; 
'Tis now too late to aveuge my fall ; 
And oh ! her journey cancels all ! 
INIary, my gentle sea-guU spare, 
Thougli she was merciless as fair; 
Ere her excuses half are said, 
I shall have pardoned the bright head !" 

A peciüiar feature of Ab Gwilyin's genius is tlie entliusias- 
tic outpouring of liis emotions, wlietlier of joy or sorrow, of 
praise or blame, love or enmity, wlienever lie is once fairly 
roused by liis subject. There is sometbing, at times, almost 
Shakespearian in his rapid flow of imagery, pouring out as 
from an inexhaustible river-god's urn. Sometimes we have 
in one ode a series of beautiful images, following one another 
in rapid succession, like the colours in a kaleidoscope ; an- 
other ode will give us an equally vivid series of grotesque 
images like the incoherent fancies of a feverish dream. He 
rarely dwells long on any suggested thought ; his muse has a 
light touch that jiist throws a bright passing illumination on 
the object, and then flits off to another part of the landscape 
like a ray of April sunshine. One of these very remarkable 
odes is that to the snow, No. ccv. 

The poet begins by lamenting that he cannot stir froni his 

horne, nor keep his appointment with his mistress in conse- 

(|uence of the snow : — 

" Thcre is uo world nor ford nor hill-slope, 
]So upoii s])ace uor ground to-day." 


He soou bursts out into a volley of abuse agaiust tlie suow, 
aud I quote a few of the more striking lines : — 

"There is not a spot under the wood without its white dress, 
ííor a bush without its sheet ! 
A bright veil over the grove of trees f ull of sap, 
A burdeu of chalk overlying the wood. 
A very thick shower of foaui, 
Lumps bigger than a man's fist ; 
Through Gwynedd do they pass, 
White are they, very bees of paradise ! 
AVhere does heaven throw together such a plague ? 
Where is there such an appearance ì It must be the feathers uf 

the geese of the saints ! 
'Tis a dress of silver made by the ice for a time, — 
'Tis all quicksilver, the coldest in the world. 
A dress of cold, disappointing is íts stay— 
A deception on hill, hollow, and fosse ! 
A coat of thick steel, — an earth-breaking weight,— 
A pavement larger than the grave of the sea." 

[Palment nnry na mynicent mor.) 

It is daugerous for a foreigner to criticise particular liues 

in a poet of a strauge language ; but I cannot help reraarlc- 

ing here that this last line strihes me as almost sublime. It 

brings out so vividly the immense tract of white barren snow 

and ice covering the whole surface of the land, large enough 

to be tlie gravestone of the sea. It reminds me of Keats' 

lines, though, of course, they contain a very difîerent image 

to describe the same phenomenon, where he addresses the 

bright star in the wintry sky as 

" Gazing on the soft white new-fallen niask 
Of snow upon the mountains and the moors." 

Another of these odes, iu which the grand and the gro- 
tesque are so curiously miugled, is Ode xliv, wliich describes 
how Morfudd and the poet nieet in the wood, but are fright- 
ened by a thunderstorm. In tlie opening of the poem he is 
serious, and I give a few of the liues where he describes the 
thunder by a succession of similes, as some of these are re- 
markable : — 


" 'Tiö a crasli tliat all thc world hears inccssantly, 
A hoarse bull shattcring the rocks ; 
Tlmnder which brings trouble to us, 
Like the uoise of arms in the sky beyoud our bounds ! ^ 
I heard aloft (I retreated for fear) — 
The giant voice of the trumpet of the beating rain, 
A tliousand giants raving wildly 
From the chains of the consteUations."^ 

These last two lines remind one of tlie grand verse in Job : 
" Canst thou loose the bands of Orion?" which is generally 
interpreted to mean " Canst thou loose the bands of the 
giant ?", Kcsil or Orion being conceived as an impious giant 
bound uj)on the sky. I have been often puzzled as to how 
Ab Gwilym could have got this image. It could not have 
been suggested by the passage in Job, for the Yulgate has 
only gyrum Arcturi poteris dissijmre ? It must have been, 
therefore, a casual coincidence. The resb of the poem falls 
below the high level on which it began, and one is vexed to 
descend to such lines as — " A red-haired witch shriekiní; 
while shut up"; " An ugly hag clashing lier pans"; or " The 
breaking of old brewing-tubs". 

A more pleasant example of these descriptive odes is that 
delightful one to the brooni (No. xlvii), which I shall quote 
in Mr. Jolins' translatiou. It is entitled " Y banadl-lwyn". 
He first describes the grove of broom in its winter dress, and 
tlien he foretells its glories in the next spring : — 

" When ]\Iay steps lightly on tlie trees 
To paint her verdant liveries, 
Gold on each thread-hke sprig wiU glow 
To honour her who reigns below ! 
Grceu is that arbour to behold, 
And on its withes thick showere of gold. 

' Cf. Virgil, Geor[/., i: — "Armoruiu sonitura toto Gcrmania coelo 

'^ M'ú fawr yn ymleferydd 
O gadwynau syguau sydd. 


Oh, flowers of noblest splendour,— these 

Are summer's frost-work on the trees ! 

A field the lovers now possess 

With saíîrou o'er its verdure roUed, 

A house of passing loveliness, 

A fabric of Arabia's gold, 

Bright goldeu tissue, glorious tent, 

Of Ilim wlio rules the firmament, 

"With roof of yarioiis colours blent ! 

An angel, mid the woods of May, 

Embroidered it with radiauce gay, — 

That gossamer with gold bedight, 

Those fires of (ìod — those gems of light ! 

Amid the wood their jewels rise, 

Like gleams of star-light o'er the skies, 

Like golden bulliou, glorious prize ! 

How sweet the flowers tliat deck that floor, 

In one unbroken glory bleuded, — 

Those glittering branches hovering o'er, 

Yeil by an angel's hand extended." 

I will now give a short account of some of tbe more 
striking poems in Ab Gwilym, as tbis will give tbe best idea 
of tbe peculiar form of his poetry. It is impossible to divide 
his odes into classes ; tbey bave at once too mucb like- 
ness and too mucb diíference to submit easily to any sucb 
classifîcation. In one sense, tbey are nearly aU specimens of 
tbe Provençal clianso, aud a strong general similarity runs 
tbrougb tbem all ; in another sense, eacb bas its own indivi- 
dual cbaracter, as Ab Gwilym has far too much ûvertìowing 
originality to need often to repeat bimself. 

In XXXIX and lr' we bave two poems on a mist wbich 
hindered bim from keeping bis appointment with Morfudd ; 
tbey more closely resemble each otber tban his poems gene- 
rally do. I give a prose rendering of part of the fìrst, as it 
is a good example of Ab Gwilym's volley of indignaut 
epitbets, when facit indignatio versum : — 

" As I was going betimes to wait for her, 
There sprang up a mist. a birth of the night ; 


Cloiid-mantles darkened the way 

As if I had been in a cave. 

All trace of the sky was covered, 

A close mist arose reaching to the sky's vanlt. 

Ere I had walked a step in ray wandering, 

Not a spot of the country could be seen more, — 

No birch on the cliff, no border, 

No hìlls, mountain, nor sea ! 

Fie ou thee, great tawny mist, 

Dark-brown cassock of the air, 

Smoke of the ignis-fatuus of the pit, 

A pretty habit thrown over this world ! 

Like an exhalatiou of the floor of hell, that far-o£E furnace. 

Smoke of the world growing from afar ; 

High-topped spider's web, 

Like a flood filling every place. 

Thou art thick and greedy, father of rain, 

Thou art its home, aye, aud a mother to it ; 

Heavy blanket of bad weather, 

Black web from afar, wrapping the world. 

Unloved, ungenial crop, 

Sea-calf hurdle between me and the sun ; 

Day becomes night, thou hurdle of drops, 

Day in night, art thou not graceless ? 

Thick with snow aloft, cuvering the hill, 

Grandfather of hoar f rost, father of thieves ! 

Litter of January's abundant snow, 

A conflagration of the wide air, — 

Creeping along, scattering hoar frost, 

Along the hills ou the dry brushwood of the heath." 

Anotlier veiy cliaracteristic poem is No. lxxxiv, called 
Maiol ir Eos, but ratlier " The Niglitingale and the Crow". 
The poet describes himself as wandering in Eytun Wood, 
and lie coraes upon a nightingale " on her soaring journey 
under a mantle of leaves": — 

" Delicately she sings her first grave note, 
The ' mean' and ' treble' in her toil ; 
The happy melody of a refined glad maiden, 
Climbing through the branches, the bright cementing of lûve. 
Yaluable is her mention in Ovid, 
Poetess, weaver in tho trees, — 


She is glad by day aiid by uight, — 

A voice with no stainmering, good, bright, and fair." 

As he liears lier siug in lier glade, it reminds him of a 
mass-service, a not unfrequent topic of comparison with 
him : — 

" The mass under the fair leaves 
Performed by the oi^en air liandmaid of love. 

" When behold, the cheerless raven on the tree-top,— 
Loud, rapacious, with its armful of flesh, 
Leading an assault, whilé spreading out her tail, 
Against the palace of the dear, bright russet bird. 

" Came the raven from some excursion aloft, 
An unprepared song compared with the other, — 
Resolute with three notes, no happy business, — - 
'Rain! rain!' quoth the wretch from the bush! 

(" Gwlaw, Gwlaw'\ medd y haw o'r berth.) 

" She checked our supreine happiness, 
With her trailing f eathers and her ready cries, 
Yea, she made the family party of the leaves, 
With the glorious nightingale on the sprays, 
Sadden yonder and grow silent,' 
With the brazen impudence of that black Jewess." 

The poet, enraged at the raven's interruption, pours forth 
a volley of abuse against it, and ends by bidding it fiy away 
to feast on the carcase of an ox lying on a distant field : — 

"The bird believed my words to be true, 
And I enjoyed from the glossy grey wing 
(Happy occupation !) voices which were better !" 

In another Ode (No. CLXXXii), we have an adventure with 
a fox. Tlie poet was resting under the trees, when he ob- 
served a fox at some distance : — 

" It made a set at me, to my shame, 
I saw him when I looked yonder, 

» Compare Tennyson's Pelleas and Ettarre, 

" And all talk died, as in a grove all song 
Beneath the shadoAV of sonie bird of prey." 

DAI'YUD AH aWIl.YM. 127 

In shape like a moiikey, I did not like his place, 
A red fox — the dog's form is no frieud of his, — 
Sitting like a town-hog 
Near its hole, on its haunch." 

The poet aims liis bow of yew at the intriider : — 

' ' I drew my shot mth cruel aim 
Past the side of my face — wholly past — 
Alas ! suddenly flew my bow 
Into three pieces — a cruel misfortune ! " 

Of course this mishap provokes him, and he proceeds to 
Avreak his vengeance by abusing the innocent cause ! In the 
midst of the torrent of abuse, the fox hears the sound of the 
hunters, and leaps down the rock and flies away in the far 
distance to escape his pursuers. 

Anotlier singular poem is one to which I have ab-eady 
alluded — the dialogue between the poet and liis shadow. Tlie 
poet represents himself as wandering in the glade and 
sheltering under a birch tree, wlien he sees, in the late after- 
noon, his own shadow stretched out in gigantic proportions. 

The bard crosses himself at the sight of the spectre, and 

asks who it is. It answers : — 

" Myíì — gad dy ymofyn, 
Dy gysgod — hynod y w hyn ! " 

' ' Thus all nakedly to glide, 
Gentle poet, by thy side, 
Is my task, my heart's desire ; 
I have feet that never tlre, 
And am bouiid by secret spell 
AU thy wanderings to tell, 
To espy each wile and art, 
Fairest jewel of my heart !" 

Ab Gwilym at once begins his usual storm of epithets. 
The exhaustless wealth of his vocabulary of scorn reminds 
one of Shahespeare's endless torrent of vituperation in the 
mouth of Thersites in Troíliis and Cressida, or Timon in 
Timon of Athens. I liave ouly time for a few lines as a 
specimen : — 


" Whence, whence art thou, giant's child? 
Shape of darkness, huge and wild ; 
Bald of brow as aged bear, 
Bloated uncouth form of air ; 
More hke iiuages that scud 
Tlu-ough our dreams thau flesh and blood ; 
Shaped like stork on frozen pool, 
Thin as palmer (waudering fool !) 
Long-shanked as a crane that feeds 
Greedily among the reeds ; 
Like a black and shaven mouk 
Is thy dark and spectral trunk, 
Or a corpse in winding-sheet." 

And so it goes on for more tlian a page, till at last the 

provoked sliadow retorts by tlireatening its substance with a 

very substantial vengeance : — 

" By my faith, if I were to tell 
To some who kuow (something) this that I know, 
'Tis a sure fate, ere the excitement had ceased 
In. Christendom, thou wouldst be hanging ! " 

I cannot help feeling that liere Ab Gwilym missed his 
opportunity. The idea in itself is a most original one, and we 
can easily picture what a grand poem Keats or Wordsworth 
would have made of it. The idea of the gigantic and seem- 
ingly supernatural shape dogging the poet, — his personified 
conscience, as it were, accusing liim of his sins, — might have 
furnished the material for a splendid outburst of imaginative 
poetry ; but it should not have been treated in a ludicrous 
spirit. It is at such times as these that we feel the truth of 
Goronwy Owain's criticism in one of his letters : — " Ab 
Gwilym was perhaps the best Welshman that ever lived for 
ludicrous poetry ; but, though I admire and even dote upon 
the sweetness of his poetry, I have often wished he had 
raised his thoughts to something more grave and sublime." 

The only poet, as far as I remeniber, who ever had the 
same conception come into his mind, is the great Spanish 
dramatist, Calderon; but he has treated it in a very different 
way. The passage occurs in the Purgatory of St. ratrich. 


LudoYÌco Ennio lias been for some time ^vatcliing to kill 
an enemy ; a cloaked figure coutinually crosses his patli, and 
calls Lim by name, but, on liis foUowing, constantly dis- 
appears. At last, Ennio resolves that this strange intruder 
shall himself fall a victim ; ^vhen he next appears wrapped 
in a cloak as usual, and addresses him hy name, Ennio strikes 
at him with his sword, but wounds only the air. The fìgure 
retreats; he pursues. At last they re-enter in a lonely spot, 
and Ennio thus addresses him : — 

" Cayalier, the street already 
We have left ; if aught prevented 
There our combat, here we stand, 
Man to man, ■with none beside us. 

" Since agaiust thy frame my weapon 
Strikes in vain, I dare to ask thee 
Who art thou, strange being'? Speak ! 
Art thou mortal, spectre, devily 
StiU no answer ! thus I dare, tlieu, 
Cast aside that cloak of thine, 
And discover — 

[//e piill-^ open the clonlc eind eHscovers a sleleton. 

" God protect me ! 
What is this ? oh, fearful image ! 
Horrid vision ! mortal terror ! 
AYhat art thou, gaunt corpse, that, crumbled 
Into dust and ashes, stiU 

Voicefrom the Slceìeton. " Know'st thou not thyself ? 
See in me thine own resembla,nce — 
I am Ludovico Ennio ! '' \_Disappears. 

Ladoüico. " Aid me, heaven ! what do I hear? 

Aid me, heaven ! what do I see ? "^ 

Compared with this scene of Calderon, Ab Gwilym's light 
and wayward playfulness 

" Is as moonlight unto sunlight, or as water unto wine." 

' .1 borrow this translation from an old article in ihe Mouthì ij 



I have been ratlier severe on Ab Gwilym for his unworthy 
treatment of the splendid subject of the diologue with the 
shadow ; it is only fair that I should conchide with an ode 
where he has worthily treated a good subject, — I mean his 
beautiful and thoroughly characteristic ode to the woodcoclc 
(Xo. LXXii). It has never been translated into English be- 
fore, and I therefore venture to give a versiou of my own : — 

" Good morrow, bird of gentle throat, 
Though thine 's at times an angry note, 
Bold plunger iu the river's wave, 
Or shall I call thee falsely braye ? 
Light slender woodcock, tell me now, 
Whitherward bound thus fliest thouV" 

" The cold is keen, the frost binds fast, 
I, by my faith, am off at last ; 
Far from my summer haunts I flee ; 
'Tis the wild snow that huri-ies me ; 
Cold winter scares me with its gloora, 
Its snowdrif ts drive me from my home." 

" Say not a word, but bend thy flight 
AVhere yonder lives my lady bright ; 
The fiercest winds shall pass thee by, 
Safe in that sheltered sauctuary, 
Where gleam the waves beneath the hill, 
And the warm sunshiue hngers still. 


" Bird of long beak, yet even there 
Are deadly perils to beware ; 
Thy life is lost, if near thee go 
The fowler with his bolt and bow ; 
Heed not his call, nor close thine eye, 
But from his wiles thy fastest fly ; 
Let every bough thy shelter be 
From bush to bush and tree to tree. 
And if by chance some snare, concealed 
Beueath the trees that skirt the fleld, 
Should catch thee in its prison light, 
Be not too flurried in thy flight, 
But with thy stroug beak boldly draw 
The horsehairs out that bind thy claw. 


" 'Tis the old bird of mouriiful mood, 
AVho roams the glens in solitude ; 
Rather do thoii, bright wing, to-day 
To Rhinwallt's bower pursue thy way ; 
Bear to the fair-haired lady there 
My secret anguish and despair, 
And by St. Cybi tell me sooth, 
If she stiU keeps her plighted truth. 
Stay near aud watch beside her gate, 
Ánd on her every movement wait ; 
And to assist thee, songster mine, 
I will reveal to thee a sign ; 
She is a lady white as snow, 
But just a wife, the more the woe ! 

" I love her every feature still, 
Her image on the old gi-een hill, 
As much as in that vanished time, 
Yea, more than in her maiden prime ; 
O, make her love her bard no less, 
Poor victim of her faithlessness. 

" I waited in the frost ; more wise, 
Another carried off the prize ; 
Cold o'er me blew the freeziug wind, 
As I stayed waiting, left behind. 
That proverb now too well I know, 
Some wrecked hope's utterance long ago ; 
' I marked a forest tree my own, 
Another's axe has cut it down !' " 

Tliere is a cliarming series of similar poems addressed to 
different animals whom he thus sends as his llattai to the 
poetical mistress who, in Provençal fashion, rules his song, if 
not his heart. Birds, beasts, fishes, all interest him; we 
have poems to the lark, the seagull, the salmon, the swal- 
low, the eagle, the trout, the swan, and the wind ; and every 
poem has its own peculiar touch. Thiis, in that to the sea- 
giül we have a remarhable couplet, where he says : — 

" Lightly thou fìiest over the wave of the deep, 
Like a piece of the sun, — o (jauntlet of the sea .'" 

In that to the wind, we have tlie line, — 



" The worLrs bold tyraut, without foot, without wing ;" 

and again, in tliat to the swan, — 

" A gallaut work is thy horsemauship of the wave, 
To lie iu wait for the fish froui the deep, 
Thy augliug-rod, beautiful creature, 
Is in sooth thine own long fair neck ! " 

But the time warns me tliat I must draw tliese imperfect 
remarks to a close. It is impossible, in a siugle lecture, to 
do more tlian point out some of the more prominent charac- 
teristics of this remarlíable author; and I have especially 
tried to look at him, not merely as a great Welsh poet, but 
as a member of the wider community of European poets, in- 
íîuenced, like his contemporaries, by the 'great currents of 
thought and feeling which stirred his age. 

I canuot, however, close without one remark especially 
addressed to the scholars of Wales. It is surely incumbent 
on them to prepare a critical edition of Ab Gwilym's works. 
The two editions whicli we have, are not edited with any 
critical care ; and a scholarly edition of the text, with the 
yarious readings of the oldest MSS., would be indeed prized 
by all who are interested in medÌ8eval Welsh literature. Ab 
Gwilym abounds with hard passages and obscure allusions ; 
but the best of all commentaries is a carefully edited text ; 
for every student knows, to his cost, what it is to spend his 
strength uselessly in attempting to solve some enigma which 
at last turns out to be no dark saying of the poet, but some 
duU blunder of a scribe ! 






By the REV. ELIAS OWEN, M.A., of Ruthin. 

CusTOMS that date from Homeric days still remaiu in AYales. 
I well remember "srlien my own dear mother was lying in 
her cofíìn, and I was gazing for the last time upon all tliat 
was mortal of her that was so dear to us all, that I was de- 
sired by one of the women bystanders to touch her forehead 
and to give her a last kiss, which I did. I was afterwards 
told by these women, that by so doing I should not be troubled 
by the spirit of her, whose spirit, I may say, was ever with 
her ehildren when she was alive. I was not then aware that 
touching the forehead of the dead had its origin in ages long, 
long ago. It was sorne time afterwards that I found au 
allusion to a similar custom iu the Iliad. Thus, in Book 
XXIV, line 712, ' A.TrróiJieyaL Ke(^akr}<í of the departed was a 
custom even in those early times, and it remains in Waies to 
our days. 

Another custom that prevails in Montgomeryshire iu refer- 
ence to the dead and is observed there, but I have never 
heard of it in other parts of Wales, is the placing of salt on 
the body when it is in the coffin. I forget the meaning of 
this, or rather the reason for so doing. 

The night before a funeral, in most parts of Wales, a re- 
ligious service is held in the house of the deceased, which at 
present is conducted as foUows : a hymn is sung, a portion of 
scripture read, and then a prayer is offered up wliich is fol- 
lowed by a hymn, and alternate prayer and hymn follow for 
about an hour. This is how the waìcc, or wylnos, as the 


service is callecl, is conducted by tlie Nonconformists ; but 
when the deceased belonged to the Church, and the service is 
conducted by the Vicar or other clergy of the parish, it is 
iisual for the officiating clergynian to give out the hymns 
and expound a portion of scripture, as well as to ofíer up the 
prayers both while opening and at the end of the service. 
AU the friends of the departed, and neighbours generally, 
attend this meeting, and the relations never fail being present 
on this solemn occasion. After the religious service is over, 
the parish clerk, should he happen to be present, or someone 
else, announces the hour of the departure of the funeral on 
the following day, I need hardly say that tears flow freely 
at this meeting upon every alhision, should any be made, to 
the deceased, or even the singing of the plaintive hymn is 
enough to open the tìood-gates of pent-up sorrow, Before 
separating, the friends of the departed take a last look at the 
dead, and go quickly honie. Thus is the wylnos now held. 
But it was differently conducted a hundred or a hundred and 
twenty years ago. An old friend of mine, John Evans, 
Llanrwst, as he was called, told me some fifteen or twenty 
years ago, that it was customary to invite some well-known 
singer to the wylnos, and it was expected that he would 
come prepared with an elegy, of his own composing, upon 
the deceased. This information, John Evans, who was about 
sixty years old when he told me of it, had had from an old 
man named Edward Prichard; and Edward Prichard told 
Johu Evans that he remembered an old man in Llandeerai 
parish, who was in the habit of frequenting wylnomu, as a 
hired, or at least specially invited, singer ; and he was ex- 
pected by his song to comfort the relatives upon the sad 
occasion. The song usually described the departed's personal 
appearance and his many worthy qualities. It was, in fact, 
a lamentation over the dead — an elegy. This is also a very 
ancient custom. We find such a custom prevailed in the 


earliest times, and bards aiid poets liave vied with eacli other in 
singing of the great departed. Biit in Wales, so late as the 
last century, everyone had some one to speak a kind word of 
him or her who was no more. The poetry possibly was not 
very strihing, but, such as it was, it was often enshrined in 
the memory. John Evans, whom I have already mentioned, 
repeated a few lines to me which had been uttered by the 
hired singers. In these lines reference is made to " tlie curly 
hair, and the yellow, grizzled beard" of tlie dead. In later 
times, I have heard of some lines sung at a wylnos, which I 
give, as an example of these productions of local poets. I 
have been assured that tlie words were actually sung at a 
place iu Angiesey, where mats were, if they are not now, 
made. Tlie lines run tlius : — 

" Baban bach sy' wedi marw, 
A'i dad ai fam yn crio 'n arw, 
Gobeithio bod o'n well ei gartre 
Na bod yn N yn gwneud mattie." 

These lines express a hope that the baby, after whom the 
father aiìd mother were crying, was better oíf wliere he was 
than being in ISÍ ch making mats. 

There are various kinds of fuueral offerings in Wales. I 
will mention some that have come under my own notice. 
There is, íirst of all, the offering made to the nearest relatiye 
of the departed. The neighbours, friends, and relatious, 
send what is necessary for the meal whicli is given before 
the funeral procession starts. The presents are sent the day 
before the funeral. Then, on the day of the funeral, all those 
present place a coin on the coffin as it stands on the bicr. 
This money goes to tlie widow. I have seen tlie oíferings 
given to the relict as she sits by the fire-side, with her liead 
covered with a sliawl. This is done when offerings are not 
made over the dead. This way of showing respect for de- 
parted friends has its origin in aucient days. From Thucy- 


dides it appears that a siuiilar ciistom prevailed in liis days 
in Greece. When describing the preparation for the funeral 
of those who had first falleu in the war, he writes (Book ii, 
chap. 34), Kai iirLcfyépec tŴ avTOv e^aaTO'i, rjv Ti ^ovKriTai,. 
Hence it seenis that in Greece there was a custom of pre- 
senting something to relations on the occasion of a funeral, 
that each one gave what he pleased. 

There are, besides the offering now referred to, two others : 
the one made to the clergyman, the other to the parish clerk. 
These offerings occasionally are very large. I have heard of 
cases in which they have amounted to several pounds, even 
so much as £15. But this is a very exceptionally large 
oftering, and is given upon the pccasion of a well-known, 
greatly respected gentleman, whose funeral is attended by a 
large number of rich friends. Usually, the amount oftèred 
depends upon the social position of the departed. It is, 
consequently, sometimes very small, not reaching more than 
a few shillings, or even less. The offering to the clergyman 
is made in the church, The first to ofí'er are those that are 
by blood or marriage connected with the deceased. These 
walk up to the communion table, aud place their offerings 
thereon, and when they liave reached their seat, then those 
present at the funeral go up in a streani ; maintaining, how- 
ever, a kind of order, the returning body walk on one side 
the aisle, whilst those who go up walk along the other side. 
lu this way, confusion is avoided. In some churches there 
is a small fiap-table attached to the rails that surround the 
commuidon, on which the offerings are placed. The oífering 
to the parish clerk is made in the porch as the funeral leaves 
tlie church. Generally, a penny is placed on the plate which 
he holds, and for w^hich he thanks the giver. At the grave 
he receives the offering of the relations, who retain their 
nioney until there. lu some parishes, the parish clerk re- 
ceives the offerings over the grave, on a spade. I knew an 


old clerk who, wlieu tlie ofierings weve small, wonld exclaini, 
"Ah! love is cooling, love is cooling!" I have no doubt he 
received many a sixpenny bit, lest he should say " Love is 

There was a curious custom, which has disappeared in the 
life-time of the middle-aged, at marriages. It may be called, 
" Eunning for the wedding-cake". This custom was common 
in Carnarvonshire. Marriages used formerly to be attended 
by a large number of young persons : twenty couples, or more, 
used to march to church, and the churches were generally 
well filled with well-wishers, or sight-seers. A good number 
of young men were also present, but they presented them- 
selves for the purpose of competing in a race for the wedding- 
cake. AYhen the clergyman pronounced the young couple 
man and wife, these young men rushed out of the chiirch to 
the house of the bride, aud the one who fìrst arrived there 
received the wedding-cake, which became his own. Some- 
times this race was a long one, and mauy started as competi- 
tors. My old friend, Mr. Eichard Parry, Plasuchaf, Llau- 
llechid, tüld me that lie once ran four miles against thirty 
young men, and won the cake. ]\Iy friend told me tliat lie 
was dressed on the occasion in breeches and brown stockings, 
and that it was at that wedding that he met his wife, and, 
added he, " AVe all got our wives upon such occasions". 

The marriage party in those days sang hymns in church, 
and a marriage was a festal day. It was quite a holiday for 
young men and young lasses, and lustily did they enjoy its 


L E T T E E S 




{Gontinued from page 8 L ) 


" Penbryn, December 21st, 1760. 
" Deae Sir, — I have yours whicli canie witli tlie boys, wbo, 
ever since tbey came bome, have been bard at work in copy- 
iug, etc. ; so tbat, if I am able to bridle tbem in tiU tbeir re- 
turn, tbey will improve considerably in writing and commou 
sense. Tbey seem to take a pride in outdoing lads of tbeir 
standiug. Wben I wrote to you last, it was like a lucid in- 
terval. I bave been since very bad, tbe fever lurking in my 
blood, and my liead quite muddy. But a letter froni ]\lr. 
Pegge last post bas given me some life. He bas answered 
tbe Teutonic letter as well as I expected, and seems to be a 
fair candid man, aud a sensible man, except in pronouncino- 
me a scbolar, wbo am no more tban a glow-worm, and you 
know it, wbo are better acquainted witb me. I bere return 
your catalogue, and sball send you sometliing by way of fìll- 
ing up, or, as tbe masons say, Ccrrig llanw. I also bere returu 
you Mr. Pegge's Octawji Casus and Dr. Pbilii:)ps' letters. I 
am quite crazy in body, and fit for notbiug, baving not yet 
been out of tbe bouse since tbe 14tb of November. I must 
take pbysic, etc, and bring myself low, in order to rise. 

" I am, yours sincerely, 

"Lewis Morjîis." 


"Penbryn, Jan. 24tli, 1761, to tlie 31st. 

" Dear Sir, — My wife tells me slie must, one of these days, 
send the boys' shirts, etc. ; and I, like a faithful corre- 
spondent, loohed out immediately for paper and ink to keep 
to my usual way of crefu am glod, nid oes neb arall ond y 
chwi a rydd imi ddim. 

" It is as good as a cordial to my drooping spirits. There 
is nobody but you that tells me to my face (I raean of my 
acquaintance) that I am somebody, and I wish your letter 
was legible that I might show it to my wife, that she might 
also think so. Your last letter was such a scrawl, that really 
if I had not known it was sense, I could hardly make it out. 
But such is the pride of all great men, that there is hardly 
one of them that writes a legible hand. There is your corre- 
spondent, Dr. Phillipps ! ! In your next letter write your 
best hand, and tell me plaiu downright that I am a very 
clever fellow, and a wonder of a man, that my wife may read 
it ; for she wiU believe that it is really so. Lewis XIV used 
to say, that no man was thought an hero by the servants of 
liis bed-chamber ; for when a person is seen stark naked, he 
looks but like another man. And if you were to see me 
naked, you would not take me to be either AYitheriugton or 
Dafydd ab Gwilym. "Well, once more I beg of you for a 
translation in Latin verse of the ynidrech rhwng Llyicelyn a'r 

" I know, and am sure you can do it, so as to give life to 
the original. ]\Iy children, when you and I are dead and 
gone, wül divert themselves by the fire-side, of a long winter's 
night, with the ijroduction of their father and master. And 
why should you be against such innocent amusements ? P^le 
mae 'r Caniad a addawsoch cliwi ? 

" This poetical immortality is not to be despised ; it raises 
an ambition to do greater things. Wele hai mae ^n rhaid imi 
bellach rui eli icln\i wrth eich llaw ddrwu. 


" My old friend, Mr. Ambrose riiillipps, tlie poet, used to 
say, that soiind wit and sense need no embellisliraents, and 
that nonsense, thoiigh wrote by a writing-master, woiild be 
nonsense stiU. This is a truth tliat wanted no proof; my 
own assertion w^ould have been suffìcient ; but I heard this 
of a certain preacher, who used to prove out of the scripture 
that we must all die. So far I have filled up this paper with- 
out anybody's assistance ; but here I must call to my aid all 
the old women in the neighbourhood, and have not a word 
more of my own to say, but that I am in great truth, 

" Your most humble servant, 

"Lewis Moeris. 

"P.S. — When the old women come you shall know what 
they say.^' 

" Penbryn, February llth, 1461. 

" Dear Sir, — I had yours of Monday morning, query, what 
month or year. Yes, yes ; and I have also received Canu 'r 

" I had a poet at my elbow when I opened it, who, after 
I had read it, gave his opinion, that it was either one of Hugh 
Morris's songs, or one that imitated his manner very strictly. 
I wish you joy of Hugh Morris's Avjen, and may it breah out 
in flashes like phosphorus, till you quench it with ale as he 
did. I am obliged to you for the Doctor's packet of letters ; 
were not you bewitched, wlien you sent him all my foolish 
letters, which I had wrote to you as a successor of Hugh 
Morris, the bard, and which were not fit to be seeu by learned 
doctors ? However, I am exceedingly obliged to the Doctor 
for his concern for a poor mortal on the point of death. He 
shewed a great deal of good nature and humanity, an un- 
common tliing in the country of Ceredig ap Cunedda Wledig. 
I have wrote at last to Mr. Pegge ; and have shewed my 
wife your letter witb your best haud, where you call me a 


clever fcUow, Lut, to my great coufusiou, what do you tliiuk 
stie said ? ' This is ouly a coutrivance betweeu you ; I am 
sure you are not clever, aud this correspondeut of yours is 
not Mr. Eichard, for he never wrote so good a hand, for I can 
read this, and no woman can read his, for his is full of Latin 
aud crooked letters.' It was in vain to contradict her, and 
there the matter is like to stand. Hark ye, you need uot be 
made of iron, like the King of Prussia, to enable you to 
translate his Couflict with the Hector of France. 

" Do, pray you, that I may have a little praise under the 
shadow of your wiug, for I am sure my Welsh verses wiU live 
if you make a Latiu version of them. ISTo, no ; I am not on 
the top of the liiU above you ; I am in the valley below ou 
the other side. I do uot know wliere Mr. Pegge is^ perhaps 
ou the top of tlie Peak of Derby. We shall see bye-aud-bye. 
You see, I am not ashamed to shew you my weak productious 
(and to crave assistance), though you are possessed of the 
spirit of Hugh Morris. But it is that makes you so stiff. 
Imagiue yourself Eichards of Llanvyllin for ouce. Dr. Trapp 
says he was the best Latiu poet siuce Horace's time. AVlio 
more likely to be possessed of his Aiüeii — by transmigration 
than his uame-sake ? Aud where is tlie poor fatherless 
muse to be entertaiued, unless you give her a lodgiug ? The 
old man is gone, aud has left her to your care. I wish you 
would leave her to my son, when you have doue with her. 
Pooh,pooh! all my niatter is gone; I have not so niuch stuíî' 
in me as will finish this paper with any grace. 

" I have been moidered here witli poets, musicianSj and 

antiquaries for some days past, who have drained my under- 

standing, if I had any, and woe is me that I have ever studied 

these things. Farewell till T recruit again, and believe me to 

be yours siucerely, 

"Lewis MOIIRIS." 

1 i2 LETTERS. 

"Penbryn, Marcli lltli, 1761. 

" Dear Sir,— Cliwedl y Barcld Cwse : ' Ar fore teg o Fawrth 
rliywiog, a'r ddaear yn las feichiog mi gymmerais ben yn fy 
llaw i ysgrifennii at un or dynion tewaf yn Ghymru, os gwir 
a ddywaid y bobl. le, oedd gwreigdda deimladwy gyda mi 
ddoe yn ciniawa ac yn trugarhau wrthoch ac yn cwyno 

"It is an unw^holesome fat, meddai un. He is bloated, 
meddai 'r llaU ; fe fydd marw o eisiau gwynt, meddai 'v 
Uall ; gresyn oedd, meddai gwraig o Aberystwyth na buasai yn 
dyfod attom ni i farw. Gw^ae íi na fuasai yn dyfod attoch 
chwi i fyw, meddwn innau, 

" However it is, I wish you would be so good as to step 
over here to undeceive a body, and shew that you are not 
such a monster with a Saracen's head, like Sir Eoger de 
Coverley. Mae agendor fawr rhyngof i a chwi, fal na allaf i 
ddyfod hyd yna, byddai 'n hawdd i chwi ddyfod yma gyda 'r 

" I have nothing new or strange to tell you, but that I have 
a new correspondent in Oxford, who, I expect, will make a 
good Welch poet, being a man of fortune and a scholar, with 
a strong inclination to understand our ancients. This very 
day I was told you had a scholar from Llaiì Gollen, who 
was born a poet, aud can hardly speak in prose ; pray, send 
me some account of him. This account came from Aberyst- 
wyth. You will be as noted bye and bye for breedino- of 
poets as Gruffudd Hiraethog was in Queen Elizabeth's time, 
or as Mr. Williams of Pont-y-seiri is for breeding of sheep 
and wild horses. I have also some thoudits of ta^in-T the 
spawn of a poet into my service to keep the old British 
custom. These wild thoughts have led me I do not know 
where, and I had almost forgot the chief errand of this letter, 
which is to borrow the boys for tlie holidays, aud I do hereby 


covenant, proniise. grant, and agree, tliat they sliall return 
when their mother thinlcs it convenient. The fireside takes 
me up intirely. I am neither fit for grafting, planting, uor 
the desk. I ani under the discipline of the fygydfa, night 
and day ; in some parts of North Wales it is called, Y ]VIinnau 
rhag gormod o hono. 

" I have had a letter from Mr. John Jones of Hertfordshire, 
a sensible, ingenious man. A correspondent of mine is about 
pulDÜshing tlie natural history of the birds of Britain, and 
wants the Welch names of birds. If you will take the 
trouble of- writing down the Welsh names of birds in your 
neighbourhood, I shall be obliged to you ; I may possibly 
meet with an uncommon name among them. 

" I am, yours sincerely, 

"Lewis Morpjs." 

"Penbryn, 26th March, 17G1. 
I should reckon it a sin against the rules of correspondence 
to suffer these lads to return without their credentials along 
with them, and their mother tells me they must go in a few 
days ; therefore I must set my letter in the stocks, so that it 
may be ready to be launched when they go. I have hardly 
time to talk with them this bout, so that I do not know 
whether they have improved anything since Christmas or 
not. I v>'arrant you expect some fire or spirit in this letter, 
because it comes from a warm Dyfí'ryn, and because you mis- 
take our smoak and fog here for fire. But, alas ! I know, to 
my sorrow, that fogs and mists are not warm, and when you 
consider tliat I am here encompassed with six of my own 
children, and having another in the loom just coming out, 
you cannot well expect either warmth of body or mind, for 
both are drained of their spirit. Do not you really long to 
be in my condition, capable of leaving tliis kind of im- 
mortality behind you ? Well, I will tantalize you no more 


(Talii tân), — but wish you a wiíe and .six or seven children, 
thougli perhaps you choose the business of mahing poets, 
rather than mahing children. Your pupils made me very 
merry the other day ; you know as well as I do, tliat they 
cannot express tliemselves in any language. I asked them 
about your poetical pupil, whether he made any verses, and 
whether they could recoUect any of them ? ' Na fedrwn i 
(said they) ond fe fydd meistr ag yntau yn gwneuthur Pry- 
dyddin (meaning Prydyddiaeth) bob nos wrth y tân'. 

" I asked if there were any women with tliem, ' na fydd 
yno neb ond Modryb Gwen a'r forwyn'; well, this is~excellent, 
'gwneuthur prydyddion heb help merched'. ISIow I am upon 
the subject of gwneuthur prydyddion, pray has your pupil 
the qualifications of a modern Welch poet, fel i gwypir a ellir 
prydydd o hono, chwedl Statut Gruffudd ap Cynan ? 

" Is he in raptures with a cup of good ale ? Does he prefer 
his own works to any of tlie ancients or moderns ? Dotli he 
despise all other languages and learning ? Doth he afíect 
low company and greedily swallow the praises of tinhers and 
coblers ? Would he get out of bed to sing with the harp, as 
Gronwy used to do when with me ? Is he naturally inclined 
to buffoonery, dirty language, aud indecent expressions ? 
These are the standing characteristics of a modern Welch 
poet, and are a kind of excrescences which must be lopped 
off' in the mouthing of hini. And theuj perhaps, you niay 
lead him on in the plan of Yirgil, the great and modest. 
What have I been doing all this while ? Teaching a master 
rider to ride tlie great horse. Dysgu i mam ferwi Ilymru. 
Wele hai ! mi dawa finnau am heno, mae fy llygaid i yn ddarn- 
gauad, a'm pen i yn yscafu wrtli besychu, felly nos da 'wch. 

" Eich gwasanaethwr, 

" Lewis Moreis. 

" Tuesday, 31st March. — Last night I had a line from Evan 

LETTElíS. 145 

Williams of Gargoed, signifyiug tliat liis son John is to be 
buried to-morrow. As very ]ikely you will be going to the 
funeral, and as I should like my boys also to go, I would be 
glad if you would restrain them from going to the house, for 
such a YÌolent fever may likely be epidemical, which tender 
youth are very apt to catch. However, their mother is very 
anxious on that head, wliatever may be my opinion ; I long 
to see your poet in embryo, it is an uncommon bird." 

'' Penbryn, April I7th, 1761. 

" Dear Sir, — I received yours yesterday by way of Aberyst- 
wyth, though signed on Monday, the misfortune of cross 
posts. I am obliged to you for the Englynion by Sinion 
Jones, which gives me a better notion of the person's parts 
and abilities than if whole volumes had been wrote by others 
to describe him. You do right to check his Welsh Awcn. 
It should be tied down till he is a tolerable proíìcient in the 
Latin, for without Latin he cannot understand the great 
master of our language and poetry, John David Ehŷs — witli- 
out he had the opportunity of reading abundance of our 
ancient poets in MSS., which would do as well. But he will 
never make any proficiency in our language or in our poetry 
without the help of John David Ehŷs, or those old MSS. 
from whence the old Doctor picked his flowers. I fìnd the 
young man hath fire and good stufî in him, but, like a rough 
diamond, there are but few that can distinguish between him 
and Carrcg Iwyd y rhych, for want of being polished. A 
jeweller in London had a stone in his show-box which he 
took to be a pebble ; an ingenious Jew came by and asked 
him what he would take for that rough diamond. ' I will not 
dispose of it at present,' said the jeweller, and upon trying it 
on the wheel it turned out to be a diamond of immense 



value. Even so yoiir pupil will, wlien lie is polished. He 
must not meddle witli Welsli poetry till he is master of ortho- 
grapliy, otherwise he will build upon sand. To convince him 
of this, I will insert here a few errors in orthography in his 
Englynion and title. Oudd should be wrote Oedd ; ddaith 
read ddaetb ; Chefrol read Chwefror ; Canlin read Canlyn ; 
Clowes read Clywais ; leithodd, cenhedlodd, read leithoedd ; 
a madrodd read ag ymadrodd, and that spoils the poetry ; 
Clws read tlws, which spoils the jingle ; Saesnaig, etc, read 
Saesneg, etc. ; Bygeiliaid read Bugeiliaid ; blain read blaen ; 
CynhwyUin read Cynhwyll}Ti ; ddiwisgiU read ddewiscáll ; 
Cyfnewydiog read Cyfnewidiog ; escis read escus ; Signo 
read Sugno ; deliau read diliau ; i gyredd read gyrraedd ; Ame 
read Ammau ; Caere read Caerau ; drwi read drwy ; Uyfre 
read llyfrau ; nau read na'u. 

" As for errors in synwjT and cynghanedd, I shall not 
touch upon tliem at present ; it is sufíicient to show that 
the foundation should be at least good upon which aU the 
structure depends. With much to-do we drove off the ague 
from Jack, but it will return again if he catches cold. The 
quotidian which he had was of the worst kind, and hardest 
to fìght with. I intend to-morrow for Cardigan, and hope 
they wül send the boy with this to you on Sunday. Mr. 
Pegge is a fair and an honest correspondent ; I cannot as yet 
spare his letters. I must have Lewis home to copy them, 
for fear of accidents, for they are valuable. We are gone no 
farther than Copenhagen, for sonie authors lately pubUshed 
there ; dyna ddynion yn chwilotta ! ni adawant gornel o^' 
byd heb ei hedrych. 

" My service to the Eginyn Bardd, and you may tell 
him for his encouraçrement that he wiU make an exceUent 
Welch poet by and bye, if he lays it entirely by for the pre- 
sent, and lets it take a nap. He need not fear its growing 


rusty ; it wiU rise with fresli vigour, wlien it has dreamed a 
little about the ancieuts. I heartily wish you well, 

"And am, sincerely yours, 

" Lewis Moreis." 

" Penbryn, April 25th, 1761. 

" Dear Sir, — Though I cough without ceasing, and can 
hardly hold my pen, and have not one perfect idea of any- 
thing in my head, owing to this excessive flux on my hmgs, 
I cannot help striving to write to you, in hopes to squeeze 
from you an answer, which will give me some relief, which 
is a hind of food to a relaxed spirit. Besides, I am like a 
cask filled with new liquor, ready to burst for want of vent. 
Who is fittest to hear my complaints and to administer re- 
lief but the guardian of my family, or the tutelar God of my 
chimney. I told you in my last, which I sent by Jack, that 
I intended to go to Cardigau. I did so, in order to appear 
for my friend, and with a view of meeting with a person per- 
chance of my own taste. Adar o'r unlliw a ymgasclant i'r 

" I knew that about half the gentry in these parts of Wales 
were to assemble there at the election, and I had a good 
chance of picking up either a mathematician, a naturalist, or 
an antiquary. These arts are in England reckoned the neces- 
sary qualifications of a gentleman. But, my countrymen, 
how are we fallen! You are a curious man, and want to 
know the event of my researches. I will tell you. After 
the strictest enquiry, and now and then dropping my bait, I 
met with nothing in the world but Bambalio, Clango, Stridor, 
tarantara, murmur, not so much as a piece of a Welch poet 
to be seen or heard of, no manner of relief to a weatber- 
beaten muse, except I had been a duck, everybody's view 
seeras to have been the wetting his bill. Much offended with 



the men and place, I returned homewards, and took leisnre 
enough to observe the country, a shocking prospect of poverty 
and idleness, neglect and ignorance. What have I now to 
say, but God deliver us from all this veil of darkness. 

" I am, yours sincerely, 

" Lewis Morris," 

" The letter-carrier sets out, or else I would have told you 
what I met with, as well as what I did not meet with. I 
hear nothing of our friend Evans's success or otherwise ; 
let me know if you have any account of him." 

"Penbryn y Barcut, May Ist, 1761. 

" Dear Sir, — You are always in my debt a letter or two, 
thougli you have an army of writers at your back to assist 
you. Cannot you tell or command one of the meanest of 
them to answer my trifling letters, since you cannot spare time 
yourself ? If it had not been for the coldness of the weather 
you should have been pestered with more of them. But 
I am so chilly that I cannot sit above three or four minutes 
together, so you may thank the weather for that. Wliy did 
not you let me know whether it was proper to send a horse 
for the bard ? Perhaps you expected a Cywydd, as that from 
William Cynwal to Sion Tudur i geisio benthyg Ehys 
Gryther. But my vein for Cywydds is all spent, digon o 
waith imi yw gwneuthur pennill trwscl gwirion. 

" Naturalists, when they meet in their travels with a scarce 
or curious plant, especially a nondescript, immediately seud 
to all their correspondents an account of it ; in like manner 
I cannot help letting you know that in my road to Cardigau 
I met at Llannarth a thing in the shape of a man, designed for 
a poet, and containing very good stufî, if he liad fallen into 
good hands to be remodelled. He hath travelled, he hath 
seen St. Paul's and Westminster Abbey, and hath sung to 


the King, God stand witli his Grace (Duw safo gyda 'i Eas), 
though he never saw hini. He hath read our polemical 
writers, he hath Stackhouse and TiUotson at his fingers' ends, 
and he showed me a printed paper, called by some a ballad, 
wherein he answers the queries of a certain Welch clergyman 
about predestination and free will. The poetry is tolerable, 
and the matter excellent. When I showed him some incor- 
rectness in the style, and some faults in orthography, he 
immediately swallowed it by wholesale, nid rhaid i chwi 
ddywedyd gair ychwaneg ; mi a'i gwelaf fy hun. 

" He would stand a quarter of an hour in one posture, like 
the statue of the gladiator at Mr. Sylvanus Bevan's, and make 
an excellent figure, though by trade but a little slender shoe- 
maker ; he is not above fifty years of age, and his intellect 's 
very strong, therefore may be licked up into the form of a 
poet with little trouble ; he is known by the name of Evan 
Thomas, y Crydd a Phrydydd. So nmch for this piece of 
curiosity. How long am I to keej) the boys at Whitsuntide ? 
I have heard nothing yet from our old friend Evans ; dyma 
hwb etto, gwedi bod yu peswch ag yn heppian uwch ben fy 

" Sleep is not only a resemblance of death, but is real 

death, and hath its resurrection, like the other. Who knows 

how often we are to transmigrate after this manner ? We 

are no eternal beings, and I suppose immortalno farther than 

we are upheld by our Maker. But we shall know more of 

these things when we are stripped of this body of flesh. 

Now I think of it, I send you enclosed Evan Thomas's 

ballad ; pray return it me when you have perused it. My 

garden calls me out ; it wants seeds of flowering plants, 

etc. So farewell at present. 

" Yours, 

"Lewis Morris." 


" Penbryn, May 20tli, 1761. 

" Dear Sir, — I sit down with my pen and ink in liand^ not 
because I have anything to write to you, but because these 
young chaps are like to set out to-morrow íbr Ystrad Meurig, 
where they long to be, since they are not allowed to play 
ball here, and because they are obliged to run on errands, 
and are often told they are íìt for nothing but to make shep- 
herds and miners. Pray, have you heard anything of our 
friend E. Evans ? I wonder Llan Badarn is not supphed with 
a vicar before this. From this paper I was called to dinner, 
where I acted the glutton ou a rock-fawn {alias pastai myn 
gafr), a dish which few of the greatest men of England ever 
see on theh' tables, and, in my opinion, excelling all their 
dainties. This continent is the great chain that holds the 
world together. Llyn Teivy trout, and some sauce out of 
Horace, is, with you, tlie most savoury dish in the world. 
Our constitutions are fitted for the food the country affords. 
The Hudson Bay Indian,with the same goust^ drew the bladder 
through his teeth, wliich had held his train oü, as a Londoner 
w^ould devour an Ortolan. I have no news to give you. I 
am sure I am not to live long, for even scribbling is become 
a pain to me ; several times have I been obliged to get from 
my desk since I began this scrawl. Old age and infirmities 
of several kinds have laid a siege to me, and it is probable 
that even the capital must surrender soon ; then, farewell. I 
wish you all the happiness that the climate affords, and I 
wish for a little warm weather to make my cough easier. 
Here is an old Pennill fiill of nature ; pray, turn it iuto the 
same verse in Latin : — 

' Blodau 'r flwyddyn yw f' auwylyd, 
Ebrill, Mai, Mehefiu hefyd ; 
Llewyrch haul yn t' wynuu ar gyscod, 
A gweuithen y genethod.' 


" Tliis is but a small boon I ask ; ancl yet I see you slirug 
your slioulders, and endeavour to fìnd an excuse for your 
laziness. Good night to you ; God be witli you. 

" I am, yours sincerely, 

"Lewis Morris. 

" I was favoured lately witli the company of a mountain 

poet,wlio prided liimself on being a wanderer like the ancients. 

He is known by the name of Hugh Jones of Llangwm; he is 

truly an origmal of the first order, and worth seeing, hath a 

natural aversion to Saxons and Normans, and to all lan- 

guages but his own. 21st. My journal (diurnal) continues ; 

a windy day, inclining to be stormy. The mother will not 

sufifer the sons of her youth to go to-day, lest they should be 

lost in Piheidiol, on which a bridge is wanted more than at 

Ehyd Yendigaid. Besides that, she wants them to go and 

fetch home some geese and goslings, which are better eating 

than Ovid's E^nstlcs, aud such dry food. 22nd. A very stormy 

day, as variable as wind can make it, — as changeable as a 

woman, except in this case there is more bad than good. I 

have this day got from Ireland a curious treatise on the 

Ancient State of Ireland. The author nameless ; nor can I 

guess who it might be. He strikes out several new lights on 

tlie history of the British Isles. Why have not we a disser- 

tation of that Idnd ? We have ten times more niatter than 

the Irish have ; but we are all lazy like you, that pretends 

to be dead. 

" Yours once more. 

" Dubün : Printed by James Hoey for the Editor, ]Mr. 
Michael Eeüly. 1753. 

" 23rd. This, I hope, is the last codicil to tliis letter ; for, 
notwithstanding all our resolution, it was carried by a great 
majority of the house, that the expedition should be put oif 


till to-morrow, wlien, by general consent, the Castle of Ystrad 

Meurig should be beseiged in form, and battering engines are 

jjroYÌded accordingly. 

" Yours again and again." 

" Penbryn, June tbe 5th, 1761. 
" Dear Sir, — I thank you for yours, which, like all your 
letters, is fuU of life, wit, and spirits, and you shew more in 
denying that you have any, than others wdien they stretch 
their utniost to shew you it. Let a fine girl affect to wear a 
dish-clout for a handherchief, — she will stiU be a fine girl ; 
but let me and others of the low species of mortals plume 
ourselyes as much as we can, we are still but common stuff, 
without life, without energy, without edge. Well, since I 
know you expect some matter in this letter to keep up a 
correspondence, and for you to work upon, I herewith send 
you a packet of as much sense, wit, and humour, as I have 
been able to find in North Wales. It is a Ca . . . up . . . on 
a dark grey horse, by the name and title of Evan Evans or 
leuan Fardd ag Offeiriad. Make much of him, and take as 
much out íjf him as is necessary for you, to save me the 
trouble hereafter to pretend to write anything like wit or 
sense to you. Cannot you take a bellyfull that will last you 
a twelve month ? perhaps I may not live longer than that. 
Then, between you be it. I have not a syllable more to say. 
All my store is drained ; but, however, 

" I remain, yours siucerely, 

"Lewis MoRras." 

"Penbryn, June 13th, 1761. 

" Dear Sir, — I liave been struck with the palsy some time 

ago, and am in a very bad way. Tlie fever hath left me ; 

but, as I gather strength, the bad symptoms increase. It is 

a doubt with me, whether ever I shall recover. God's will 


be cloiie ; He liatli given, and lie takes away, and dotli as He 
pleases witli His own creatures. I wisli you healtli and 
liappiness. " Yours, 

"Lewis Morfjs. 

" If I grow worse, I shall send for the hoys." 

"Penbryn, August 3rd, 17G1. 
" Dear Sir, — The great shock that I had lately from a fit 
of the palsy, hath brought me so low that I recoyer but very 
slowly, and another strohe like this would finish me. God 
knows how soon that may happen, as I am on the decline as 
well in years as constitution. The situation of my poor 
children has given me a good deal of uneasiness, and under 
these circumstances the method I have taken in the education 
of my boys that are with you, will by no means do hereafter; 
for I can never foresee that classical learning wiU bring them 
iu this country any livelihood under their mother's manage- 
ment after my decease. But some insight into accounts and 
the arts requisite in the busy scenes of life, may make theni, 
with the assistance of their friends, fit to be clerks in offices, 
or something that may get them a bit of bread under the 
tyrants of this world. I am, therefore, determined to send 
them immediately to some school to attempt to learn writing 
and accounts, and, if I recover this stroke, I intend to bring 
them afterwards to you, to ground them in the Latin tongue, 
which may be of use to them. But all our schemes are wild, 
and have no solid foundation, for God disposes of works as 
lie pleases, after a most surprising manner. I send by the 
bearer £12, to pay for the boys ; their year is up, I think, 
about this time, or will be soon ; and if there be anything 
remaining for books, let me know, and I will send it you. 
Let them come home with the bearer, that I may fit theni 
out for their intended journey, which must be where the 


mother chooses. The frequent returns of some of the symp- 
toms which the palsy hath left behind it, makes me expect a 
relapse, so that I am, in the language of this worhl, within a 
clearer view of Eternity and those glorious, glorious regions 
of immortality, than those whose eyes are dazzled with the 
lustre of temporal things ; and it is impossible for me to ex- 
press to you the satisfaction I had in a ìate glimpse of it, 
which I am certain was far from enthusiasm. God be with 
you and yours. 

"I am, yours sincerely, 

"Lewis Moeeis." 

"Penbryn, Nov. 7th, 1761. 
"Dear Sir, — The accounts you have, that the folks at 
Penbryn are in health and high sphits, are far from truth. 
Here is neither health nor spirits, nor any tlioughts or hopes 
of ever tasting of either of them. My constitution is not only 
broken, but ruined. A ride I took lately in order to defend 
my property against the attachs of a tyi-ant, hath, instead of 
helping my health, shattered it. I cannot sit to my pen a 
quarter of an hour together, nor can I fix my eyes on a book 
for half that time, but am taken with a vertigo ; so that the 
dread of an apoplectic fit gives me some uneasiness, and 
would drive me distracted, if I was not thoroughly convinced 
of the goodness of my great Preserver and Maker, who best 
•knows when to dispose of me. The whole world seems to me 
a well-regulated family, governed by its great Father, and 
though we are not sharp-sighted enough to see the use of 
what we call evils, yet they have certainly their proper places 
in the management of the wliole, and the day will come that 
Ave shaU see that plainly, which we see now but faintly. 
Some beings are placed low in the scale of felicity, for what 
reason we do not know ; and some are seemingly near the 
top of the ladder. Are those below placed there, that they 


may have tlie more pleasure to climb up ? These things are 
too deep for my weak understanding. You inquire after the 
progress your quondam scholars make. Very little, I am 
afraid, in the languages ; but they have improved greatly in 
their writing. No ; not so able an instructor in languages as 
yourself, nor to be compared ; but if I have an inclination to 
make my children chimney-sweepers, they have no chance to 
learn that art in your school, and they must learn it when 
they are young. I am glad you have read Camden's 
Britannia, which will enable you upon a second reading to 
open his wounds to the quick, and they should be seared 
with hot irons. This is the great oracle of the Engiish, and 
is swallowed without chewing, because the pill is gilt. Take 
off the gilding and you will find sad stuff under it. The 
design was great, the structure magnificent, but the perform- 
ance or execution poor and shabby, notwithstanding that it 
was covered with great learning and industry. But the case 
is, the foundation was bad, and truth has suíîered to serve a 
national pride. The memory of the ancient inhabitauts is 
endeavoured to be darhened, and their names obscured, and 
every shadow of occasion is taken to revile them and their 
writers and noble actions in war, while the con(j[uerors and 
rulers are cried up when there is scarce a coiour for it. It 
will be better if you can come at Gibson's translation of 
Camden's Edition in 1607 (I think), for there he has fiourished 
much more than in the first edition, 1586, which you have. 
I long to hear from my friend Evan Evans, how he goes on 
with Nennius, and how he stands with the Barrington family. 
I hope they will give him a lift at hist to some purpose. 
There is a new edition of Nennius made at Copenhagen. I 
want to send him an account of it. But I am not sure my 
direction to him is right. My memory is prodigiously im- 
paired since my being attached with the palsy, and since my 
cough and asthma have gathered strength. The messenger 


goes, and I must close my letter, and defer wliat I intended 
to say to anotlier opportunity, and can only tell you that 

" I am, yours sincerely, 

"Lewis Moekis." 

" Penbryn, Marcli 27th, 1762. 

"Dear Sir, — Yonr letter of the 16th, which came to my 
hands just now, gives me a great deal of pleasure, when I 
reflect that one worthy man of uncommon sense and under- 
standing covets my correspondence. Surely, says I, there is 
something in me which others see, and I do not. Upon my 
word, I cannot fìnd what it is that is worth notice. I look 
back and see nothing in all my actions but vanity of vauities, 
not a solid act or deed among them. Trifles, flights, and wüd 
vagaries, owing to a superabundance of spirits that kept no 
bounds. In the body's evening, the soul perceives the dawn- 
ing of common sense, and as one w^eakens the other gTows 
stronger. I have done thus far half asleep, and just escaped 
a fall. Why do not you say something about my song and 
hymn (quoth he) ? I wiU give you my opinion franhly, but 
do not shew it to anybody, or else we shaU fall out, for there 
are people wicked enough to persuade you that my remarhs 
are owing to ül-nature, because you write better than me ; 
keep it to yourself, and we shall agree well enough. Both 
your Songs on the Bridge are exceUent South Wales songs, 
exceeding everything I ever saw done in that country, had 
they but one ingredient, which is purity of diction. The 
misfortune is, and a great loss to the world^ that you under- 
stand the ancient Greehs and Eomans better than the ancient 
Celts and Britons. The Songs of tlic Briclge would have out- 
done the best things of Hugh Morris, if you had been correct 
in the language ; but stül, I say, for South Wales songs, they 
bear the laureL I am not so nice as to measure aU poetry 


by Nortli Wales rules and grammatical exactness. I know 
that these countries, wbich were formerly diÔerent Princi- 
palities, had also diíferent dialects, industriously kept up, to 
know the natives by. If South Wales men had wrote gram- 
mar, we should haye proper pbjral terminations instead of, 
an, etc, etc, and abundances of licences of the like kind. 
But now, in strict ^rating, it is otherwise, because in South 
"Wales they busied themselves in fighting more than -writing. 
Besides, the British of South Wales is notoriously mixed with 
English, and, as the children learn it of their mothers, they 
transmit it to their children. Wlio can help all this ? This 
has given their poets a language distinct from iS'orth Wales 
and Powysland, which in Prydydd y Bont hath outshined 
everything. A surly critic would ask how dìjn athrist could 
be dyn didrist. I confess it staggered me a little at first, 
until Tom Pryse, who was better versed in the South Wales 
dialect than I was, told me that tristo was to trust, as helongo 
to belong, etc, etc. It is true that in this dialect the poet 
has a greater scope for rhymes than Hugh Morris took ; but 
the pictures here are stronger and far better drawn than any 
of Hugh iMonis's; but so much as the Soutli Wales poet 
was better acquainted witli tlie learning of the Greeks and 
Piomans, who certainly were the greatest masters that way. 
I took oÊf my pen and found myself, unawares, launched into 
the sea of criticism, and now let me go out of it as well as I 
can. I need not tell you that song writing is a modern thing, 
in imitation of the English and Frencli, and Hugh IMorris is 
the only writer of ours that ever shone in it. He has taken 
some liberties with the language which tlie MTÌters of the 
24 3Iesurau, did not dare to broach, for fear of an excommuni- 
cation, and, as he is the standard of soug %\TÌting, being born 
before us, so, like Homer, he will keep his ground with all 
those little blemishes. But, certainly a man may possibly 
write even a good song in good language; and you would have 


done it liad you studied your mother's tongue more, by read- 
ins: the ancients that excelled in that knowledo;e. Some of 
the blemishes iu your song are these : Tanbed, for tanbaid ; 
Ui, for Uif ; adre, for adref ; pentref, made to rhyme to crysau ; 
cafan and dafan, for cafn and dafn ; causay Angl., causey ; 
gefel, for gefail — the plural is gefeiliau ; eiff, for â ; hynny, 
made to rhyme with Teiíì ; trwscwl, for trwscl ; dafan, for 
dafn; co, for cof ; carnedd and mwynedd, for carnaidd and 
mwynaidd ; cregin, for cregyn ; diwedd ar y gân gyntaf ; yr 
ail gân ; clywed, made to rhyme with ochenaid ; crynnu and 
Teiíì, made to rhyme ; bennydd and cy wilydd, made to rhyme 
with deurudd and cystudd, in strictness should not be, though 
Hugh Morris shews the way; pentref and eistedd, rhyme with 
hossanau; pantane, for pentanau; dolau and cartref, eithin 
and eirin, with aderyn and brigyn — an excellent pennill for all 
that ; cegin and cardottyn ; bonheddig and tebyg ; cafan, for 
cafn; pared and Uymmaid; gweiniaid and arbed ; trwyddi and 
i foru — excepting these little blemishes in dialect, I give it as 
my opinion, that I know no songs equal to these two. The boys 
are well^ and I send for them to-morrow or next day. I am 
obliged to you for your kind enquiry after them ; the post 
(an old woman) is very surly and wiU not stay ; so farewell. 

"Yours sincerely, 

"Lewis Moreis," 

"Penbryn, May 29th, 1762. 

"Dear Sir, — Yours of the 12th hath given me infinite 
pleasure, for I always thought you above writing criticisms, 
and that you looked on our authors as not worth looking 
into, when, in the meantime, you are better acquainted with 
the prince of song-writers (Hugh Morris), than ever I was in 
my life, and can see his imperfections as well as his excel- 
lencies, which few men can do. You have taken more pains 
with him than ever I did, though you are pleased to attribute 


mucli to me ; and no wonder you sliine so mucli in CaniaàaiCr 
Bont, wlien you had sucli a pattern in your eye. I am stiU 
of opinion, as far as I can trust my memory, tliat Hugli 
Morris is the first song-writer in our language that copied 
ÜSÎ'ature, or that wrote anything tolerable. Sion Tudur, 
"William Cynwal, William Llŷn, and the rest of the writers 
of Queen Elizabeth's age, were, in a manner, strangers to it. 
And I do not remember to have seen anything in the shape 
of a song tiU the merry reign of Charles 2nd, about which 
time song-writing began to sprout, in imitation of the English 
and Erench, and all good, substantial Cywydds and Awdlau 
(Odes) about that time hid their heads. It is true Hugh 
Morris wrote a little in the time of Charles Ist and 01iver, 
but it was very loose and incorrect, and I suppose you have 
hit upon some of his youthful pieces in the picture you drew of 
him. There is also an allowance to be made to merry, jocose, 
light subjects, in which a prudent mixture of languages 
looks pretty enough. I adniit song-writing to be of very 
ancient date in all languages, and I do not except the ancient 
Celtíe, whose bards did certainly make use of it. But the 
Britons fell into a kind of heroic poetry when we came to be 
Eoman provincials, which was new modelled by Gruffudd ap 
Cynan, and, as it were, religiously followed till the time of 
Queen Elizabeth, when it began to dwindle, and song-writing 
occupied its place soon after, much in the taste we have it 
now, though not in that perfection. This is the light I see 
things in ; perhaps you see them through better glasses, and 
I am sure you have better eyes. Now, since I see you allow 
of great liberties in song-writing, nay, even claim them as 
your own undoubted right, not only as an ancient nation, but 
as descendants from Troy, I will venture to lay one of these 
funny songs before you for your approbation, and in expecta- 
tion, I warrant you, of a little perfume. The subject is a parti- 
cular friend of mine, a Eellow of Jesus CoUecre, Oxon., who. 


according to tlie laws of the College, diirst not marry witliout 
losing the benefit of his Fellowship, and also losing the chance 
of having a fat College living, which he has waited for these 
30 years. At last, abont two years ago, a rich benefice fell 
to him at Nutfield, in Surrey, and he soon took to him a wife 
in that neighbourhood, which action of his, in his old age, 
produced the inclosed song, The loss of him in Anglesea is 
a very heavy one, for he was a real good man, gave freely to 
the poor, and sliined in good works. I never ventured upon 
Hugh Morris's long, heavy measures ; they are too laborious 
for me. A little Triban, or short-winded double couplet, is 
the utmost of my ambition in song-writing. I hate slavery 

and imitation. The D 1 owed me a grudge, as well as 

Parson Ellis, and he, or somebody, inveigled me to suffer 
Hugh Jones of Llangwm to publish my foolisli productions 
in verse, which he is now doing in London by subscription 
for his owu benetìt, together with the works of Gronow Owen 
and Hugh Hughes. When that wise affair comes public, ! 
how I shall be torn to pieces by critics ! then will be the 
tirne for such a strenuous assertor of Licentia Foctica (poeti- 
cal licence) as you are, for I am sure I shall want a de- 
fender. "NYas I not a weak fellow for runniug the gauntlet 
for the diversion of the public, when I might have died in 
peace with some little character in poetry, had I kept the 
fool wdtliin ? ! fie upon it ! how happened this weakness ? 
Dear Sir, if you knew how troublesome it is to me for to 
write, you would excuse me, and not expect a long letter, 
and there are few men in the world (I do assure you) that I 
would take pains to write so much for their diversion, for 
wliat is all this but to raise your spirits, and to make you 
laugh heartüy, to see a man without the gifts of uature or 
art in any perfection, endeavour to please one of the most 
accomplished scholars in his country ; but, for all this, believe 
me to be, your obliged friend and servant, 

" Lewis ]\roiì" 



EiSTEDDFODAü are multiplying and becoming ubiqiiitous. 
Two hav6 been held during the present year, and with fair 
success : one at Porthaethwy (]\Ienai Bridge) in Augast, and 
one ou English ground at Birkenhead in the month of Sep- 
tember. "We would we could record improvement in the 
conduct of the business of the several days ; but that consum- 
mation, though devoutly wished for, has yet to come. The 
adjudications were, perhaps, more condensed,' and conse- 
quently less wearisome than heretofore. But the great evil 
of too many prizes of a trifling value, not only exhausted the 
patience of the audience, but aided to increase the already 
too abundant worthless compositions which the Eisteddfod 

There was a decided improvement in the choral singing at 
both places. The eompetitions for the great prize at Birken- 
head were marvellous feats — almost perfect. If literature 
has not advanced, music and song have made rapid strides 
towards the highest excellence. We except, of course, from 
this roll the higher literary prizes, such as that of the Chair 
Prize at Birkenhead, which produced a poem worthy of the 

To chronicle the whole work of the Eisteddfod would be 
little more than tlie reiteration of what has been said of pre- 
vious gatherings. It is amazing how determinedly the bards 
keep to the old ways. As we look back on the several 
Eisteddfodau lield at Pwllheli, Wrexham, Carnarfon, Menai 
Bridge, and Birkenhead, they seem, as in a dissolving view, 
to blend or rather melt into one another, so that no distinct 


102 TIIE ElSTEDÜi'ODAU ÛF 1878. 

impression of any one is left on tlie retina of tlie miuJ. This 
sameness of character and of action offers no high promise 
of continuing success. In fact, it points out a want, the 
supply of wliicli can alone make the Eisteddfod prosperous 
and enduring — an elected governing body to control its ope- 
rations. This was admirably pointed out in an earlier nuni- 
ber of Y Cymmrodor by ]Mr. and Mrs. Thomas. Until it is 
done, tbe Eisteddfod will be held Iiere and there at random ; 
obsolete performances will be continued ufique ad nauseam ; 
and the most devoted patriot and Iover of the institution 
grow weary of its horse-in-tlie-mill iterations. 

The Chairs at both places were efifìciently filled — at Menai 
Bridge by Eichard Davies, Esq., M.P. ; Morgan Lloyd, Esq., 
M.P.; Lewis Morris, Esq. (the author of the Epic of Hades) ; 
and the Lord Bishop of Bangor. The several addresses by 
the Presidents were wortliy of themselves, and of the Eis- 

We liave no room for them in Y Cymmrodor. But tbere 
are circumstances connected with the appearance of Mr. 
Lewis Morris that must not be passed by. 

The great-grandson of Llewelyn Ddu o Fon, whose bardic 
compositions have become almost household words on the 
lips of the Welsh people, and whose antiquarian and philolo- 
gical researches were positiveIy marvelIous in a century when 
neither of these sciences ha,d as yet emerged out of its early 
and rudimentary state, Mr. Morris's presence at the Eistedd- 
fod bespoke for it a new life. We could almost fancy that 
the shade of his honoured ancestor hovered over the chair 
on which his descendant sat, to cheer and to welcome him. 
But this is not all ; Mr. IMorris has already raised himself to 
fame by his own brilliant exercises in the arena of song. As 
the Poet Laureate, in increasing spleudour and glory, descends 
toward the horizon, j\Ir. Morris^s achievements point him 
out as the light which rises in the eastern sky to illumine 


ancl cheer iis iu tbe comin<í time. For the lionour of Wales 
"\ve pray that it may be so. 

Mr. Morris was enthusiastically cheered ou rising to ad- 
dress the audience. Having thanked them for the Idnd man- 
ner in which he had been received, he said there were a great 
many reasons why he sliould not come to the present Eis- 
teddfod. He was conscious that he had never attended an 
Eisteddfod before, and this, together with the fact that he 
was but partially acquainted with the Welsh language, were 
some reasons why he should not attend. On the other hand, 
there seemed to him very good reasons why he should put 
aside all such objections, and come amongst them that day. 
One reason was, that great honour had been done him by re- 
questing him to take the chair ; though this might not have 
been a suffìcient one to win him from habits of seclusion. He 
came there, feeling that honour was done to his great ances- 
tor, Llewelyn Ddu o Von, and his great friend the illustrious 
poet, Goronwy Owain. If this be the true view of the reason 
why he came there, perhaps it might not be out of place for 
him to give a short sketch of the Morrises of Von. They 
were, in the beginning, in comparatively humble circum- 
stances, and had but few educational advantages oífered 
them ; biit yet they all attained very considerable eminence. 
WiUiam Morris, who was ComptroUer of customs at Holy- 
head, was a very true friend of all Welsh poets, and had a 
very large collection of Welsh manuscripts ; and any appeals 
made to him for literary support, were, he believed, never 
refused. Eichard Morris, his brotherj was a more distin- 
guished man. It was he who revised the Welsh Bible and 
Prayer Book. As regards the Welsh version of the Bible, he was 
weU aware that it formed the maiu literature of their coun- 
try ; and apart from its sacred character, he thought there was 
no'Welsh book more admirable as a literary work than the 
Welsh Bible. He was also the fouuder aud president of the 

M 2 


Cymmrodorion Society in Lonclou, of whicli he (tlie president) 
saw before liim a most active member iu tlie person of the 
Eev. Eobert Jones of Rotherhithe, a Society, which he was glad 
to learn, had recently revived. In coming to Lewis Morris, 
he thought he might say, without exaggeration, that he was 
oue of the most thoroughly accomplished men that Wales had 
ever seen. They, no doubt, had heard how varied his attain- 
ménts were. They also knew that, as a hydrographer, he was 
very emiuent iudeed, aud it was only yesterday that he (the 
speaker) was informed that the cliarts made by Lewis Morris 
for the Admiralty were now in use on tliese shores. As a 
miueralogist, he was one of the most eminent men of the day, 
and succeeded in acbumulating a very great fortune for 
others, although he (the President) was sorry to say that he 
accumulated uo fortune for himself aud descendants. It was 
Lewis Morris who discovered, aud worked uuder the Crown, 
the great lead mines of Cardiganshire. Another fact, per- 
haps not generally known, was this, — he shouhl not have 
known it himself had he not read au essay on his life, 
which obtained a prize in the Eisteddfod of 1874, — that 
Lewis Morris was the first to set up a press for printing 
Welsh books ; aud although, perhaps, such an uudertaking 
did not pay iu those days, it was a very noble effort on 
his part in the cause of Welsh literature. There was another 
very interesting fact connected with this matter. The Eev. 
John Wesley — a name dear to many there, and who, he had 
no hesitation in saying, was a saint, if there ever was one — 
was once passiug through Holyhead^ but was there detained 
by contrary winds, and could not get to Ireland. That reverend 
gentleman, thereíbre, utilised his time by writing two tracts, 
for the purpose of benefiting the Welsh people, and these 
were probably priuted at Lewis Morris's place at Holyhead. 
Agaiu, in the priuciples of natural science, Lewis Morris was 
one of the best teachers of the day, and not only that, he 


was also a very eminent philologist, and corresponded witli 
many of the leading phüologists in Europe. But, of course, 
all these things did not give him the claim for that honour 
which he possessed. He was a bard, and a popular bard — 
who might be called the "Burns of AYales" — and his songs 
were all remembered up to the present day. He (the speaker) 
did not know of anyone who did not remember the song, 
Mormynion Glân Meirionydd. Having read the first stanza, 
the President w^ent on to say that it bore all the characteris- 
tics of a good popular song, and as such it was well known 
and sung everywhere where Welshmen çongregated. But 
even this, he thought, did not give to him the great and one 
claim to honour w'hich endeared him to his countrymen. It 
was because he and his brothers were, through tiieir lives, 
patrons and helpers to the unhappy Goronwy Owain, who 
was, beyond doubt, the greatest poet of Wales. He (the Presi- 
dent) was familiar with the fact that Lewis Morris and his 
brothers had been of very great assistance to Goronwy wain ; 
but he never knew until he read the life of Goronwy Owaiu, 
now being issued by the Eev. líobert Jones, of the great 
generosity and constant care which those three brothers 
seemed to manifest towards him during his chequered and 
gloomy career. It was a remarkable fact, that Goronwy 
Owain appears to have corresponded but rarely with any- 
one except these brothers. AYhen Gorouwy ^^-anted advice or 
assistance, he seems to have resorted immediately to them. 
"What he asked of them that day was to di-aw the moral from 
the fact that those men, who have been dead this last century 
and a half, were stiU living influences in this Wales of ours. 
As a descendant of one of these men, he felt as if he were 
coming home on visiting Angiesey. He felt familiar here, 
His smaU reputation had preceded him there. What did this 
really mean ? It meant this — that a true and strong feel- 
iug of patriotism and national unity still existed. It pleased 


Lim to tliink that tliere still existed a nation wliicli was full 
of patriotism. He ridiculed the conclusion amved at by 
some classes that the Welsh nation and its lauguage were 
rapidly decliniug. What he advised them to do was to make 
the best out of their language in its conuection with the 
Eisteddfod. He thought this Eisteddfod of theirs was a most 
entertaining festival. There were two sides, of course, to the 
Eisteddfod. The one was the recreative side, and the other 
the educational side. The recreative side was very w^ell carried 
out, and he had thoroughly enjoyed it onthat and the previous 
day. Every nation had its own way of amusing its people. 
The Greehs had tlieir Olympian games, and he was tempted 
to think they must have been very much like the Eisteddfod. 
The English also had their games. Having entertained the 
audience by reading an account of the manner in which a 
section of the pojjulation of London enjoyed themselves on 
i)ank Holiday, the President said he was very glad that the 
hardworking people of London had thus enjoyed themselves 
by witnessing the performances of cIom'us, and others ; but 
woiúd anyone say that this was a more rational amusement 
than the amusement afforded in the Eisteddfod ? Loohing at 
the educational aspect of the question, he ventured to suggest 
the advisability, as was referred to on the previous day, of 
connecting it with the educational system of the country, by 
ofíéring prizes iu the elementary schools. This, no doubt, 
would produce very good results. There was one thing which 
he thought ought to be, and could be done. It was his great 
privilege to attend a meeting of the Cymmrodorion Society, 
when a lecture was delivered by Mr. Gladstone — whom he was 
sure all ihere respected — it was his privilege, he said, to listen 
to a lecture by him on the history of pottery iu Wales. jlr. 
Gladstone had described to them a particular manufacture of 
pottery called " Swansea Pottery", which was some years ago 
in great favour, but had now become quite extinct. Tlie 


most curioiis thing was, that the Swausea plates were bought 
in London for ten guineas. He asked why this art had been 
allowed to decay ? It would be a very fair question for the 
promoters of their Eisteddfodau to appoint a committee, or 
something of the sort, to try and tìnd out whether there were 
in Wales the possibilities of reviving this neglected art. He 
advocated the affìliation to the Eisteddfod of a Social Science 
Department, and expressed his belief that, if this were done, 
a greater future would await that institution. In conchid- 
iug, he again begged to tliank all for the exceedingiy kind 
reception accorded him, and for the honour conferred upon 
him by inviting him to preside that day ; and if they asked 
him to come at any future time, he would come again (loud 
and prolonged cheers). 

It was to-day that Professor Ehŷs of Oxford delivered an 
address fuU of practical good sense, commingled with keen 
criticism on many Eisteddfodic proceedings. Severe as some 
of his strictures were, the audience, as well as the persons 
against whom his fulminations were hurled, received them 
with becoming approval. Mr. Ehŷs spoke with fervour and 

" Mr. Llyw^' dd, Boneddigesau, a Boneddigion, — Y mae wedi 
bod yn beth lled gyffredin i ddyn wrtli gyfodi i anerch y Cymry 
mewn Eisteddfod ymgymeryd â seboni ei wrandawyr a 
gwneuthur a allo i feddalu eu penau a'u gyru i feddwi o hun- 
anfoddhad. Yn ol pob ymddangosiad, barn y cyfryw ydyw mai 
gwirioniaid ydym, ac mai gwastraff amser fyddai ymresymu 
â ni fel pobl yu eu hiawn bwyll ; a gellid meddwl mai eu 
harwyddair ydy w geiriau y Saeson ar y dydd cyntaf o Ebrill : 
' Send the fool further.' Yr wy^ fi yn benderfynol o'r farn 
mai anmharch ar y Cymry yw hyn, ac nid wyf yn teimlo 
unrhyw rwymau arnaf i osgoi llwybrau p^^yll a synywr cy- 
ffredin wrth ymdrechu eicli anerch. L)vuw\(ldodd i nii vclivtl- 


ig amser yn ol gyfarfocl m\ o brif haneswyr a beirniaid y 
Saeson, a thrôcld yr ymddiddan ar y Cymry a'r Eisteddfod, 
pan ofynodd i mi paham yr oeddwn mor ffol a gwastraffu 
amser i fyned i Eisteddfod, a pha dcliben oedd i mi ddyfod o 
fíaen pobl na wrandawent ar ddim ond canmoliaeth wag 
iddynt eu hunain. Eelly cefais gyfle i'w argyhoeddi fod y 
bobl gyffredin yn Nghymru yn llawer mwy deallgar a hoíf o 
lenyddiaeth na'r un dosbarth o Saeson ; ac mai bai y gau- 
brophwydi sydd yn ein plith ydyw fod Uif-ddyfroedd gweniaith 
a ffolineb yn ymdywallt ambell dro oddiar Iwyfan yr Eis- 
teddfod ; ond, ar y llaw arall, fod pob gwrandawiad mewn 
Eisteddfod i bob un sydd yn amcanu gwneuthur lles iV 
wrandawyr, hyd y nod pe na byddai ei eiriau yn felus a 
hyfryd iddynt ar y pryd ai peidio. ' A phaham,' meddwn, ' y 
soniwch am ífolineb Eisteddfodol : nid oes amser maith er 
pan ddygwyddodd i mi fod yn bresenol mewn cyfarfod a 
gynhelid yn mhentref prydfertli Llangollen gan gymdeithas 
henafiaetliol o Lundain oedd wecli dyfod i lawr i lewyrchu yn 
nhywyllwch Cymru, ac ar air a chydwybod nid wyf yn 
meddwl ddarfod i neb o archynfydion yr Orsedd Eisteddfodol 
lefaru nac ysgrifenu dim yn ystod yr ugain mlynedd diweddaf 
a ddaliai ei gymharu o ran ífolineb âg un o'r traethodau a 
Avrandawyd yn astud gan y gymdeithas ddoeth a dysgedig 
hono. Bernwch drosoch eich hunan,' meddwn, gan fy mod 
yn dygwydd gwybod fod y chwinc Sais-Iuddewig sydd yn 
ymledaenu yn Lloegr yn poeni ei ysbryd er's blynyddau — 
' bernwch drosoch eich hunan : y testun ydoedd tarddiad 
cenedl y Cymry o offeiriaid eilunaddolgar y brenhin Omri, 
un o olyuwyr Jereboam fab Nebat, yr liwn a wnaeth i Israel 
bechu.' ' Rhaid', eb efe, ' fod Cymry glanau y Dyfrdwy yn 
ddynion gwahanol iawn i Owain Glyndwr a^i gydoeswyr i 
fedru ymatal rhag llabyddio â nieini y fath nythed o loerigion 
haner luddewig', 

" Ond nid dyna ddiwedd yr yniddiddan, canys aethum yn 


mlaen i ddangos iddo fod yr Eisteddfod yn rhan o hanes y 
Cymry, ac yn dal pertliynas agos âg addysg lenyddol y genedl : 
a dyna y pynciavi y carwn siarad ycliydig am danynt wrtliych 
ar hyn o bryd. Un o brif nodweddion yr oes neu y ganrif 
hon ydyw, mai ynddi y darganfyddwyd neu y gosodwyd 
seiliau amryw o'r gwyddonau mwyaf pwysig a blodeuog, yn 
enwedig y rhai cymhariaethol sydd yn ymwneyd â hanes yr 
hil ddynol, neu ryw ganghenau o'i hanes, megys ieithyddiaeth 
gymhariaethol, a'r dull cymhariaethol o efrydu chwedloniaeth, 
deddfau, ac arferion gwahanol genhedloedd. O'r rhai hyn, y 
bwysicaf â'r flaenaf ar y maes ydyw ieithyddiaeth gym- 
hariaethol, ac un o brif gasgliadau ieithyddwyr yr oes ydyw y 
Ifaith fawr a gydnabyddir gan hoU ddysgedigion y byd fel y 
cyfryw, y gellir, y tu yma yn mhell o ran amser i ddechreuad 
yr hil ddynol olrhain gwahanol geuhedloedd y byd i nifer 
bychan, mewn cymhariaeth, o darddiadau neu gyfíìau. Un o'r 
rhai hyn yw y cyff Semitaidd, i'r hwn y perthyn yr luddewon 
a'r Árabiaid. Un arall yw y cyff' Ariaidd, neu Ind-Ewrop- 
aidd, i'r hwn yr ydym ni yn perthyn : y cenhedloedd sydd 
yn perthyn agosaf i ni ydyw y Llydawiaid, y Gwyddelod, a 
Gaeliaid Ucheldiroedd yr Alban — perthynasau go dlodion, fel 
y gwelwch ydyw y rhai hyn, ac o ganlyniadd bydd ar rai 
gywilydd eu harddel. Ond y niae genym ni berthynasau 
eraiU sydd yn well arnynt yn y byd, canys brodyr i ni o'r un 
cyff" Ind-Ewropaidd ydyw y Saeson, er nad mynych y cry- 
bwyllir hyny mewn Eisteddfod, gan mai arfer rhai ydyw 
cymeryd arnynt mai gelynion i ni yw y Saeson, yr hyn sydd 
wedi rhoddi achlysur i'n cydgenedl y tu arall i Glawdd Ofí'a i 
ddychymygu mai Ue ydy w yr Eisteddfod i feithrin bradwriaeth 
ac anfoddogrwydd. Brodyr i ni hefyd ydyw prif genhedloedd 
y Cyfandir, megys y Ffrancod, yr Italiaid, y Groegiaid, a'r 
Sclafoniaid; ac y mae i ni frodyr yn y Dwyrain, sef yr 
Armeniaid, y Persiaid, a'r Uwythau mwyaf gwareiddiedig o'r 


" Ar ol i ieitliyddwyr broíì roai i'r iiu cyíf cyntefig y per- 
tliyn y'cenhedloedd a enwais, a bod eu hieithoedd, er gwaeth- 
af eii holl amrywiaeth, yn dwyn olion diymwad o'u tarddiad 
cyffredin, awd yn mlaen i chwilio am olion cyífelyb yn eu 
chwedhiu, eu harferion, a'u deddfau, a buwyd mor llwydd- 
iannus yn y cyfeiriad hwn fel y gelUr erbyn hyn ddywedyd 
fod y fath ganghenau o wybodaeth yn bodoli a chwedloniaeth 
gymhariaethol a deddfyddiaetli neu arferiaeth gymhariaethol. 
Ceir, er engraifft, fod yr un elfenau yn treiddio dr^yy chwedlau 
a chwedloniaethau y cenhedloedd lud-Ewropaidd o ddyfroedd 
y Ganges hyd lynoedd yr Iwerddon. Yn yr un modd ceir 
fod yr un pethau yn nodweddu deddfau ac arferion cym- 
deithasol yr hen Gymry, y Gwyddelod, y Saeson, y Sclafon- 
iaid, ac eraill o'r un cŷfí", a bod hyn i'w obhain i'r un 
ffynhonell batriarchaidd yn y cynfyd peU. 

" Ond heb fyned i fanylu ar y pynciau yna, deuaf i lawT at 
yr hen Gymry o fewn y cyfnod hauesyddol : gellir dywedyd 
am danynt y byddai eu llysoedd yn cyfarfod, nid yn uuig i 
gospi troseddwyr, neu i benderfynu materion arianol, ond y 
byddai eu ty wysogion yn arferol hefyd, o bryd i bryd, o gynal 
math o sesiwn, ar ol rhybudd digonol, i benderfynu pwy oedd 
yn addas i'w hystyried yn addysgwyr y genedl yn y gwahanol 
ganghenau o wybodaeth oedd mewn bri yn eu plith : yr enw 
wrth ba un yr adwaenom y sefydliad hwn ydyw yr Eisteddfod. 
Gyda golwg ar gyfausoddiad y Uys trwyddedol hwn, yr oedd 
ei gyfansoddiad yn bur syml : y tywysog oedd â hawl ganddo 
iV alw yn nghyd neu i gyhoeddi Eisteddfod, oedd y pen, ond 
cai ei gyuorthwyo gan bersonau cymwys a phrofedig yn y 
gwahanol bethau yr ymorchestid ynddynt. Md wyf fi, wrth 
hyny, am awgrymu y dylasai pobl y Borth yma aros a disgwyl 
heb Eisteddfod nes y buasai i Ardalydd Mon weled yn dda 
gyhoeddi uu a Uywyddu ynddi. Y mae yr Eisteddfod, fel 
pob sefydliad araU er gwell neu er gwaeth, wedi ymweriuoli 
yn ddirfawr er yr amseroedd niwUog a eUw^ anfoddogion yr 


oes hon yn ' good old times ;' pa fodd bynag, gwelwch ei bod 
yn rhan o hanes y Cymry, er y caulyn o hyn nad gwiw 
disgwyl am fawr o wyhodaeth na hysbysrwydd am ei dechreu- 
ad. Oüd hehlaw traddodiadau lled hen, y mae genym hanes 
gweddol gyíiawn am yr Eisteddfod a gynhaliwyd yn Aberteiû 
yn y ddeuddegfed ganrif, dan nawdd yr Arglwydd Ehŷs, 
Hwyrach nad hysbys i bawb o honocli fod }ti yr Eisteddfod 
hono ddwy gadah' — un i'r bardd buddugol ac un i'r cerddor 
goreu. Pa bryd a phaham y deuwyd i'r penderfyniad y gallai 
y cerddor wneuthur heb gadair, nis gwn ; ond digon tebyg 
fod rhywbeth a fynai cythraul y canu â'r mater. Hwyrach 
mai gyru y cerddor i syrtliio allan â'r bardd a wnaeth, ac 
i hwnw, dan nawdd Ceridwen, ddymchwelyd ei gadair am 

" Er hyny, mae yn lled anhawdd gwneyd allan i drwch y 
blewyn pa faint o farddoniaeth a pha faint o gerddoriaeth 
oedd yn Eisteddfod Aberteifi, o herwydd fod y gair 'canu' yn 
ein gadael mewu amheuaeth. Y rheswm am hyny, yn ddiau, 
ydyw mai peth diweddar, mewn cymhariaeth, yn mhlith y 
Celtiaid ydoedd canu neu gerddoriaeth leisiol, fel peth ar 
wahan oddiwrth lefaru, neu ganu yn yr ystyr farddonol o'r 
gair : ceir awgrymiad o^r un peth yn mysg y cenhedloedd 
Germanaidd, gan mai yr un ydyw tarddiad y geiriau Seisnig 
say a sing. Nis gall fod amheuaeth nad offerynol ydoedd y 
gerddoriaeth gyntaf yn mysg y cenhedloedd o'r cyff Ind- 
Ewropaidd, gan y gwyddis oddiar seiliau ieithyddol fod tànau 
yn cael eu defnyddio gan y Ilwyth o'r hwn y deilliant a hyny 
ar adeg foreuol pan nad oedd eto na Cliymro na Sais, na 
Groegwr na Hindw. Ond am y math o ofíeryn tànau a elwir 
genym ni yn delyn, nid oes genym lawer o'i hanes, llai mewn 
gwirionedd näg am y crwth. Eto y niae Ue ciyf i gasglu fod 
y delyn yn hen iawn yn mysg y cenhedloedd Celtaidd, gan y 
gellir cyfeirio yn ddiddadl at air o'r un tarddiad â'n gair ni, 
telyn, yn iaith rhai o'r cenhedloedd Sclafonaidd y clywsom 


gymaiut am danynt mewn cysylltiad â'r rhyfel diweddar : os 
í'elly, mae yn bur debyg fod rhyw fath o delyn yn cael ei 
defnyddio yn mhlith ein cyndeidiau ni amser maith cyn 
iddynt gyrhaedd i^r gorllewin i olwg Ynysoedd y Cenhed- 

" I ddychwelyd at Eisteddfod Aberteifi, yr ydys yn cael fod 
talentau Cyniru, yn y ddeuddegfed ganrif, yn gorwedd yn 
debyg fel y maent yn y bedwaredd ar bymtheg ; gŵr o'r 
Deheu a farnwyd yn fuddugol fel cerddor, a Gogleddwr a 
gafodd y gadair farddol. Llawn o fiwsig a chanu yw bechgyn 
y Deheu o hyd, a hwyrach eu bod yn tueddu i redeg yn or- 
modol ar ol cerddoriaeth, ac i esgeuluso pethau eraill, ond nid 
wyf yn bwriadu ymhelaethu ar y pen yna, gan mai wrth 
Ogleddwyr y mae genyf yr anrhydedd o siarad ar hyn o bryd. 
Eu perygi hwy, y Gogleddwyr ydyw addoli jt awen yn rhy 
fynych, ond teimlaf fod hwn yn bwnc sydd yn gofyn medrusder 
mawr i'w drin. Ar y naill law, ni fynwn er dim ddywedyd 
gair o duedd i ddigaloni neu ddigio unrhyw lanc a fyddai yn 
debyg o dyfu i fyny i brofi ei hun yn olynydd teilwng i 
Oronwy Owain ac yn un o brif feirdd Cymru, ag y byddai yn 
golled i'n llenyddiaeth fod heb gynyrchion ei athrylith. Ar 
y llaw arall, mae yn berygl na bydd yma yn fuan nac afon 
na nant, na mynydd na thwmpath, wedi eu gadael i feirdd y 
ganrif nesaf i gymeryd eu henwau oddiwrthynt gan gymaint 
y gofyn sydd am danynt i ddiwallu uchelgais beirddion 
bychain düifedi yr oes hon. Ac ymddengys i mi y gallai 
geifr, ceüiogod, llwynogod, a lloi Cymru benbaladr ymdaro 
yn Ued gyfforddus am oes yr iaith Gymraeg ar a gawsant 
eisoes o englynion ; a gobeithio fod engiyn deg a chwech y 
"SA'iwer ddoe yn gorphen y rhestr. Nid yn unig niae lle i 
ofni fod llawer o'r mân bethau milodaidd hyn heb ryw lawer 
o deilyngdod barddonol, ond fod llawer o^u cyfansoddwyr yn 
rhy brysiu' yn hannos a hela cydseiniaid i gael amser i ddarllen 
a diwyllio eu meddyliau ; gorinud o awydd sydd arnynt i osod 


ar Çfhn ^t liyn a wyddant i gael liamddeu i ddysí^u yr liyn na 
"syyddant ac felly parliant drwy eu hoes, fel ceffyl mewn 
chwimsi, yn troi byth a hefyd yn yr un man. Hwyrach fod 
pob Cyraro yn brydydd ar un adeg yn ei oes, sef pan fydd yn 
teimlo ' yr iasau byw sy 'n dyrysu'r bardd,' a phan fydd ei 
galon yn dechreu agor yn y cyfeiriad carwriaethol. Ond 
bydd gan rai ddigon o synw}T cyffredin i ganfod nad ydynt 
yn debyg o ragori fel beirdd, a byddant yn cael nerth i 
anghofio yr awen gyda'u cariad cyntaf ; ond y mae yn eglur 
fod eraill yn aros yn y cyflwr bachgenaidd a difarf yna drwy 
gydol eu bywyd, er mawr benbleth i feirniaid eisteddfodol a 
golygwyr newyddiaduron a chylchgronau Cymreig. Nid oes 
dim, efallai yn peri mwy o ddigalondid i ewyllyswyr da }nc 
eisteddfod na gweled cyn lleied, mewn cymhariaeth, o ym- 
geiswyr fydd yn ymafael yn y testynau rhyddieithol sydd yn 
gofyn darllen ac ymchwTÜad. Y mae yn gystal genyf i a 
neb weled awdl neu bryddest dda, oud ymddengys y mân 
farddoni diddiwedd yma yn beth mor ddigrifol a chwithig i 
mi a gweled lluaws tref yn troi allan i cliwythu soa^ Imbbles 
neu i bysgota penbyliaid. 

" Ond hw}Tach fod ar law yr Eisteddfod wneyd rh}^'beth 
i ddwyn oddiamgylch agwedd wahanol ar bethau yn y cy- 
feiriad yma, ac ymddengys i mi fod pwyllgor }t eisteddfod 
hon yn haeddu llawer o glod am yr amrywiaeth sydd yn eu 
testynau ; un o'r rhai sydd genyf yn neillduol mewn golwg 
ydyw y traethawd ar ' Olion a thraddodiadau henafol Ynys 
Mon.' Eisiau mwy o destynau fel yna y sydd, a mwy o 
amser i gyfansoddi arnynt, ac i'r wlad gael ei pherswadio na 
M'obrwyir oni bydd teilyngdod, neu ôl ymchwiliad a llafur ar 
y traethodau, Os rhyw ddeg neu ddeuddeng mis o amser a 
roddir, dylid peidio rhoddi gormod o faich i'r un cystad- 

" Er engraifft, gellid gwneuthur amryw destynau o'r un 
hwn, megis (1) Traethawd ar gromlechydd a henafiaethau 


cyffelyb Mon ; (2) Un arall ar gaerydd ac olion amddiffynfeydd 
yr ynys ; (3) Traethawd ar lianes eglwysi Mon ; (4) Casgiiad 
o enwau lleol rhyw ran o Fon ; ac y niae hwn yn destyn o 
natur y busai yn ddymunol ei gefnogi yn nihob eisteddfod 
nes dihysbyddu y defnyddiau; (5) Casgiiad o chwedlau a hen 
goelion sydd heb fyned ar ddifancoll o'r ynys : mae eu hanes 
yn rhan o hanes yr hil ddynol, ac nid rhaid i neb edrych yn 
gilwgus ar y sawl sydd yn cofnodi pethau o'r fath, gan na 
bydd hyny, cyn belled ag y cyrhaedd, ond moddion i wneyd 
i'r rhai sydd yn credii ynddynt gywilyddio, os oes pobl o'r fatli 
i'w cael yn Mon heddyw ; (6) purion hefyd fuasai gwobr am 
Ddesgrifiad o feddfeini henafol yr ynys : liwyrach nad oes un 
o bob cant yn y gynnulleidfa hon wedi clywed erioed son ani 
gareg bedd y brenhin Cadfan yn Llangadwaladr, ger Aberffraw, 
ac nid yw hono ond un. Md oes ond ychydig fìsoedd er pan 
ysgrifenodd un o'r hynafiaethwyr sydd yraa yn beirniadu ar 
y testyn y soniais am dano, hanes darganfyddiad arch a 
gafwyd yn y Ehuddgaer, gyferbyn a Cliaernarfon, yn dwyn 
enw rhyw un o'n cenedl ni oedd yn gynefín yn arnser y Ehuf- 
einiaid, neu yn fuan ar ol eu hymadawiad oddiyma, ag 
ymddangosiad gwyneb ' Mon a'i thirionwch'. Pe byddai augen 
am destynau y tu allan i'r cylch dan sylw, puriön peth fyddai 
cynyg gwobr am Draethawd ar neillduolion y Gymraeg fel y 
siaredir hi yn Mon, a buasai yn ddymunol iawn pe dewisid 
testynau o'r fatli yn fwy cyffredin yn rhanau eraill o Gymru, 
" Yr wyf yn crybwyll y pethau hyn fel yn perthyn i ddos- 
parth bynciau cymhwys iawn i gael lle go fawr yn ein 
heisteddfodau. Y mae pob modfedd o wybodaeth leol o'r fath 
y gellir ei chasgiu yn Mon, neu unrhyw ran arall o Gymru, 
ddefnydd a dyddordeb neillduol i efrydydd y gwyddonau 
cymhariaethol y cyfeiriais atynt eisoes, a gwaith da fyddai 
dwyn yr eisteddfod i gysylltiad byw ag un o symudiadau 
mwyaf pwysig yr oes, sef yr ymgais a wneir o bob cyfeiriad i 
daflu goleuni ar hanes boreuol gwareiddiad yn y rhan hon o'r 


byd. Bydclai hyny yn foddion i roddi bywyd newydd yn yr 
hen sefydliad drwy greu mwy o ddyddordeb yn yr ieuenctyd 
yn haues eu gwlad. Arwynebol iawn ydyw Uawer o'r sel y 
bydd rhai yn cymeryd arnynt ei deimlo mewn pethan yn dâl 
perthynas â Chymru ; pa faint, er engraifft, o'r bobl sydd yn 
arfer crochlefain, 'Oes y byd i'r iaith Gymraeg', sydd yn barod 
i wneyd rhywbeth tuag at goledd yr iaith ac at gyílwyno i 
oesoedd i ddyfod allweddau Uenyddiaeth y Cymry ? Hwyrach 
y cawn w^eled cyn hir, canys yr ydys yn deall fod y Cymro 
hybarch a dysgedig Daniel Silvan Evans w^edi cysegru rhan 
fawr o'i oes i gasgiu ynghyd ddefnyddiau at.waieuthur geir- 
iadur cyflawn o'r iaith a theilwng o'i roddi yn nwylaw ieith- 
yddwyr y wdad hon a'r Cyfandir ; y mae y gwaith ar ben, 
a'r peth nesaf yw ei gyhoeddi, ac y mae yn debyg gan fod 
hyny yn gostus y byddir yn apelio at y Cymry ani eu henwau 
fel tanysgrifwyr. Gobeithio fod rhif y rhai sydd yn caru y 
Gymraeg mewm gwirionedd, ac nid ar air yn unig, yn ddigon 
lluosog i alluogi yr awdwr llafurus i ddwyn ei waith mawr 
drwy y wasg, onide bydd yn rhaid iddo, mae yn ddigon tebyg, 
aros heb weled goleuni dydd hyd nes y cyfodo oes mwy goleu- 
edig a hoffach o weithio na gwneuthur trw^st a Uuchio Uwch 
i'r awyr. 

" Ond cyn y gellir disgwyl rhyw lawer o les o'r eisteddfod^ 
bydd yn rhaid cael diwygiad mewn amryw bethau ; yn 
mhlith eraill rhaid cael mwy o drefn ar gynhal eisteddfodau 
a mwy o gysylltiad rhyngddynt â'u gilydd, niodd y galler 
cyhoeddi 'r testynau mwyaf pwysig yn nghynt nag y gwneir 
yn awr. Gyda 'r eithriad o Eisteddfod Gadeiriol Mon sydd 
yn cael ei chynal yn rheolaidd bob blwyddyn, ac un neu 
ddwj arall hwyrach, nid oes na threfn na chylch ar y cyfar- 
fodydd hyn, ond eisteddfod y fan yma ac eisteddfod y fan draw 
ar draws eu gilydd, nes y mae yr hen sefydliad mewn perygl 
o gael ei wneyd yn fath o geffyl pren i gwacyddion Ueol. 
Bydd pobl o bell yn synu yn aml pwy a ddichon fod wedi 


deor y meddylddrycli fod yn angenrheidiol cynhal eistedrlfod 
yn y lle a'r lle, yn y mis a'r mis, ond byddir yn fynych yn 
cael lle i gasglu mai nid prif bwnc y pwyllgor fydd cefnogi 
llenyddiaeth a dwyn allan dalent, yn gymaint a hudo pobl at 
eu gilydd er clod a gogoniant i lenor dimai a bardd cocos y 
lle, ac er lles i dafarnwyr yr ardal a pherchenogion gwelyau 
gweigion. Naturiol i rai felly feddwl mwy o gael rhyw reffyn 
o Sais i ddifyru y Uuaws â rhigymau y mae segurwjT Music 
Hcdls y brif ddinas wedi alaru arnynt, na gweled g^vynebau y 
Cymry sydd wedi bod drwy eu hoes yn llafurio er dyrchafu 
eu cenedl mewn llenyddiaeth, cerddoriaeth, a phethau eraiU 
sydd yn addurn i genliedloedd o wareiddiad uchel. 

" Ond pa fodd y gelUr gwneyd pen am rith eisteddfodau o'r 
fath ? A pha fodd y mae rhwystro y neb a fyno i gychwyn 
Eisteddfod ? Y mae y feddyginiaeth yn bur syml ac yn hoUol 
yn Uaw y wlad, o herw^^dd anaml yn y rhan hon o Gymru y 
byddai i neb anturio cyhoeddi eisteddfod, oni fyddai iddo yn 
gyntaf gael gan foneddigion y gymydogaeth addaw swm 
digonol arian i warantu dygiad yr amcan i ben. ganlyn- 
iad dylai y rhai a fyddont yn myned i danysgrifio chwiUo i 
foddlonrwydd pa beth yw diben yr Eisteddfod a'r perwyl yr 
amcenir yr elw a aU ddeiUio o honi iddo. Ond y mae yn 
hoUol wybyddus nad yw hyn yn ddigon, canys pa beth sydd i 
rwystro ffurfiad pwyUgor, y byddo pobl ddiegwyddor yn y 
mwyafrif ynddo, ac iddynt ranu arian y cyhoedd rhyngddynt 
eu hunain yn rhith talu am amrywiaeth o wasanaeth i'r 
genedl nes y byddo cynyrch arianol jy auturiaeth wedi 
myned yn ddim neu y nesaf peth i ddim. Nid son yr wyf, 
deaUwch, am bethau posibl ond anhebyg o ddigwydd, er na 
byddai yn ddymunol bUno pobl Mon sydd yn arfer dwyn eu 
heisteddfod yn mlaen mor anrhydeddus a Uwyddianus, a 
hanes pechodau pobl eraiU. Y fíordd i ragflaenu y drwg y 
cyfeiriaf ato ydyw, i'r wlad beidio tanysgrifìo heb gael sicrwydd 
digonol ar y penau canlynol. Yn gyntaf, mai amcan yr Eis- 


teddfod y bwriedir ei cliynal y\v cefnogi llenyddiaetli a phetliau 
eraill o dnedd i ddyrcliafu y genedl. Yn ail, fod y dibenion 
y bwriedir defnyddio cynyrch arianol yr Eisteddfod atynt yn 
hysbysedig rhagllaw, Yn drydydd, fod personau cymhwys 
"vvedi eu penodi i edrych drwy gyfrifon y pwyllgor ac i chwilio 
i briodoldeb eu treuliadau. Y^n bedwerydd, ei bod yn ddealledig 
fod y pwyllgor yn rhwym o ddychwelyd eu harian i'r tan- 
ysgrifwyr os ceir na bydd y cyfrifon y fath ag y gall yr auditors 
eu pasio. Ehyw delerau fel yna, ond wedi eu gosod allan 
mewn duU cyfreithiol a diamwys, a fuaswn i yn gynyg, ac os 
na clieid gan bw}41gorau Eisteddfodol eu derbyn, yna bod 
iddynt hwythau fod heb ddimai goch o arian tanysgrifwyr. 
Wrth gwrs ni byddid felly yn gosod un rhwystr ar ffordd y 
neb a ewyUjsiai danysgriíio lieb delerau yn y byd i wneyd 
hyny, os byddai arno awydd i ddangos ei gymwynasgarwch i 
bobl dda Tref y Cacwn, neu pa le bynag y dygwyddo yr yspryd 
rhith-eisteddfodol fod yu trwblio, fel y dywedir; yn unig, 
bydded yn amlwg iddo na bydd drwy hyny yn gwneuthur 
dim yn uniongyrchol i gefnogi llenyddiaeth y genedl, a 
bydded yn ddealledig i bawb mai Eisteddfod Bara a Chaws 
trigolion Tref y Cacwn ydy w, ac nid Eisteddfod Genhedlaethol 
y Cymry. Oni cheir rhyw drefn fel hyn ar gylch yr Eis- 
teddfod yn Nghymru bydd i oreugwyr y genedl droieu cefnau 
arni a'i gadael i suddo i ddirmvçr ac anfri, 

" Ond hwyrach y dannodir i mi nad ydy w yn werth y 
drafferth i ni ddiwygio yr Eisteddfod er mwyn creu mwy o 
ddyddordeb yn y genedl mewn efrydiau o natur henafìaethol, 
gan nad oes iddynt bris arianol na marchnadol ; ond dyna yn 
union y rheswm eu bod mewn perygl o gael eu diystyru a'u 
hanghofio, er ei bod yn anwadadwy fod diffyg dyddordeb yn- 
ddynt yn brawf o safle isel cenedl mewn gwareiddiad — dyna 
oedd barn yr ysgrifenydd Ehufeinig Tacitus, dyna farn pob 
dyn ddiwylliad eto; ac nis gallaf feddwl am arwyddair 
mwy cymhwys a destlus i'r ganghen hon o'r Eisteddfod na 'r 



geiriau a ganocld eiu hybarch fardd Gwilym Hiraethog flyn- 

yddau yn ul : — 

" ' Olrheiniaf, holaf helynt 

Hanes a gwaith hen oes gynt.' 

" Ond addefaf yn rhwydd nad wyf wedi cyffwrdd ond 
megys âg un gongl fechan o'r pwnc o gysylltiad yr Eisteddfod 
âg addysg yn Nghymru, ond nis gallaf anghofio fod pwyllgor 
yr Eisteddfod hon wedi gweled yn dda gysylltu ei hun âg 
achos addysg yn fluríiol a llythyrenol drwy addaw rhan o'i 
chynyrch arianol i gynorthwyo y coleg yn Aberystwyth, y 
sydd, fel y gwyddoch, wedi ei sefydlu gan ddyrnaid o fon- 
eddigion haelionus a Uafarus dan arweiniad Mr. Hugh Owen, 
gwr Fon, y gall gwyr Mon anturio dywedyd yn unllais 
o Borth Euthwy i Ben Caergybi am dano, na fagodd Mon 
mam Gymru erioed wladgarwr mwy, neu fwy dirodres a didroi 
yn ol. Ond hwyrach y gellid cysylltu yr Eisteddfod yn agosach 
fyth ag addysg y genedl, sef drwy ei gwneuthur yn foddion 
effeithiol i lenwi rhieni Cymru â brwdfrydedd ac awydd i yru 
eu plant i gael addysg yn y coleg hwnw a'r colegau a'r ysg- 
olion ereiU rhagorol sydd genym yn ein gwlad ar hyn o bryd. 
Pe buasai amser yn caniatau buaswn yn anturio eich anerch 
ar y pen hwn, er fod yn auhawdd dros ben cael dini newydd 
i'w ddywedyd ar bwnc mor aduabyddus. Yn mhlith pethau 
ereiU nid anmhriodol fuasai dwyn ar gof i chwi y byddai .rhai 
o honoch gynt yn gwneyd esgus eich bod yn drwg-dybio 
dylanwad Egiwys Loegr yn ysgoUon gwaddoledig Cymru, 
ond er pan sefydlwyd y Coleg yn Aberystwyth yr ydych wedi 
coUi yr esgus hwnw, pa sail bynag oedd iddo ; a'ch dyled- 
swydd yn awr ydyw dyfod aUan yn unfrydol i lenwi sefyd- 
Uadau ein gwlad â'ch plant mor foreu ag sydd bosibl ; ac os 
bydd awydd a gaUu ganddynt i fyned rhagddynt gyrwch hwy 
i Eydychain, ac na ofelwch pa un a fyddo genych aur ac arian 
i roddi yn eu UogeUau os geUir rhoddi dysg yn eu penau. 
Nid rhyw fynych iawn mewn cymhariaeth y bydd yr heu 


atlirofa liono yii cael llawer o glod na gogoniant ar ddwylaw 
plaut cyfoetliogion y deyrnas. Ei lioff waith gan liyny ydy w 
cynortliwyo becligyn tlodion i gyrliaedd enwogrwydd. A 
chofiwch nad oes gan neb yno hawl erbyn hyn i ofyn gair 
iddynt yn nghylch eu golygiadau crefyddol. 

" Ond pe dygwyddai i ambell un o honynt ddewis yn y 
diwedd fyned yn offeiriad, peidied neb a ffronii yn aruthr : y 
niae yn ddiddadl fod yn well i'r genedl gael offeiriaid dysgedig 
na rhai anwybodus o wehilion y bobl yn coledd a meithrin 
arferion isel a drwg anwydau gwehilion y bobl ; a chofiwch o 
ba le y daeth Charles y Bala a chanwyllau eraill y Cymry. 
Gwnewch, ynteu, bob aberth i roddi i'ch plant yr addysg 
goreu a mwyaf trwyadl sydd iV gael yn y deyrnas, gan adael 
iddynt yn y diwedd farnu drostynt eu hunain ar bynciau 
crefyddoL Nid oes genyf i un hawl i'ch anerch mewn capel 
nac eglwys, ond teimlaf fy mod yma yn sefyll ar dir canolog 
uwchlaw holl fariaeth yr ymraniadau crefyddol sydd yn ein 
plith, a chymeraf yr hyfdra o alw eich sylw at yr hyn a ddysgir 
gan Darwin ac ereill sydd wedi ymgydnabyddu yn fanwl â 
deddfau natur yn y byd anianyddol, sef mai ei harwyddair 
mawr a gwastadol ydyw ' The survival of the fittest', neu 
Oruchafiaeth i'r Cymhwysaf. Felly hefyd y mae, yn ol fy 
marn i, yn y byd moesol a chrefyddol ; ac nis gall neb sydd 
yn credu yn Ehagluniaeth lai na chydsynio â mi yn ddifloesgni, 
y bydd yn y diwedd i'r ffurf hono o'r grefydd Gristionogol a 
brofo ei hun y fwyaf effeithiol i wneuthur Ues i ddynolryw 
gael yr oruchafiaeth ar bob ffurf arall yn Nghymru a phob man 
arall o'r byd. Byddwch gan hyny yn esmwyth ar y pen hwnw, 
meddyliwch fwy am Iwyddiant a dedwyddwch y genedl fel 
cyfangorph nag am fri a gogoniant unrhyw ran neu enwad 
neillduol o honi, ac ymwrolwch heb betrusder yn y byd i osod 
eich plant ar y ffordd i enwogrwydd ; ond i chwi wneyd hyny 
ni bydd arnaf ofn na bydd i gynifer o honynt ei gyrhaedd fel 
na byddo angen byth mwy i neb sydd yn teimlo eiddigedd 

N 2 


dros ei genedl yniwregysu, dan amgylclnadau lled anffafriol, 

i wrthbrofi haeriadau anghariadus rhai o'r newyddiaduron 

Seisnig am ein distadledd, gan y byddai y Cymry yn fuan }ti 

debyg o dori eu nod a'u hargraph yn ddwfn ar lenyddiaeth y 

hyd, ac yn abl i herio gwaethaf tonau amser i ddileu oddiar 

dywod hanesyddiaeth ein hen arwyddair a dyhewyd ein 

henaid — 

" ' Tra mor tra Brython !' " 

We regret, we repeat, our inability to give a full account 
of the many excellent speeches delivered at this Eisteddfod. 
On the last day Mt. Samuel Morley and Mr. Henry Pàchard 
acquitted themselves admirably and to the great satisfaction 
of the audience. 

We must not, however, close without presenting to our 
readers the foUowing graceful tribute to the Eisteddfod by Mr. 
Lewis Morris : — 


AuGUST 8th, 1878. 

The close-ranked faces rise 

"N^'ith their watching eager eyes, 
And the banners and the mottoes flai'e above ; 

And without, on either hand, 

The eternal mountains stand ; 
And the salt sea-river ebbs and flows again, 
And thro' the tbiu-drawn bridge the wanderiug winds complain. 

Here is the congress met, 

The bardic senate set, 
Aud youug hearts flutter at the voice of fate ; 

All the fair August day 

Song echoes, harj^iers play ; 
And on the accustoiued ear the strange 
rennillion rise and fall through change and counterchange. 

Oh, Mona, land of song ! 
Oh, mother of Wales ! how long 
From thy dear shores an exile have I been ! 


Still from thy lonely plains, 

Ascend the old sweet straius, 
And by the miue, or plougli, or humble home, 
The dreaming peasant hears diviner music come. 

This inuocent, peacef ul strife, 

This struggle to fuller life, 
Is still the one deliglit of Cyniric souls. 

Swell bleuded rhythms stiU 

The gay paviÌious fill ! 
Soar, oh, young voices, resonaut and fair ! 
Still let the sheathed sword gleam o'er the bardic chuir ! 

The Meuai ebbs and flows, 
Aud the song-tide wanes and goes, 
And the singers and the harp-players are dumb : 
The eternal mountains rise 
Like a cloud upon the skie3, 
And iny heart is full of joy for the songs that are stiU : 
The deep sea, and the soariug hills, and the steadfast Ouuiipolent 


No. 3. 
C R A F F D E R. 

A wua angall o ddeiigair, 
Lluuier i gall liauer ^air. 



Ladies and Gentlemex, — I beg to tliaiik the committee 
veiy heartily for tbe kiiid, tbe only too kincl and flattering 
language tbat tbey bave addressed towards me. Wben I 
look at tbis vast building and see tbe audience, many of 
wbom are so far removed from nie, I cannot but wisb tbat, 
like tbe bero in one of Dryden^s poems, I bad a voice like a 
silver trumpet. Unfortunately tbe cbange of weatber we 
bave bad bas visited me, and affected even tbose sniaU 
natural powers of voice wbicb I possess. I must ask, tbere- 
fore, tbe consideration of tbose w^bo bave got one of tbe most 
diffìcult tasks I know of, and tbat is to listen patiently to a 
public speaker witbout being able to bear one word be says. 
I am bappy to bave beard froni all quarters bow en- 
tirely successful tbe visit of tbis great AYelsb institution 
to your Englisb neigbbours bas been. Tlie AYelsb bave 
desceuded, as tbey used to do a bundred years ago, from 
tbeir mountains, aiid carried ofî tbe Saxon spoil in large 
quantities. On tbis occasion, I am bappy to tliink tbat 

^ Several motives have urged us to give an enduring place to thia 
speech in Y Cymmrodor ; not the least of which has beea the practical 
good sense it brings to bear ou the Eisteddfod. Lord Aberdare speaks 
from a standpoint whence English prejudice and Welsh laudations are 
equally excluded. He holds and adjusts the scale with impartiaüty, It 
is well, occasionally, to have our Aveaknesses iaid bare ; and we, of all 
people, may well say with Burns : — 

" O, wad some power the giftie gie us, 
To see oursels as others see us ! " 


tlie spoil has been williugly siirrendered — (laugliter) — and 
that it M-ill be a satisfaction to the Saxon if they hear 
that it has heen ample and in all respects remunerative. 
(Applause.) Ladies and gentlemen, I feel that in the lan- 
guage addressed to me just now there was, amongst other 
qualities, a great deal of Christian charity, hecause it is well 
known that some twenty years ago I took upon myself to 
utter rash and, perhaps, presumptuous words of advice to the 
conductors of Eisteddfodau — words that have not been, on 
the whole I think, very accurately represented, but which I 
spoke at that time with the most sincere desire that these 
Eisteddfodau might be, even more than in the past, a means 
of educating and elevating the people of Wales. (Applause.) 
At that time a great controversy was wagiug in the press, and 
whilst some persons fastened entirely upon the merits of the 
institution, others, with even less of justice, fastened en- 
tirely on its defects. I could not but admit that there 
were defects in Eisteddfodau. There are still, probably 
the most judicious supporters of this institution will admit, 
defects in the institution, but it is an institution full of life 
and growth; and being full of life and growth, it needs 
constant attention, in order to develop its fuU usefulness. 
ÜSTow, ladies and gentlemen, I think it may be said of 
all the amusements of our people that they are, I am 
sorry to say, brutal, or innocent, or instructive, or even 
elevating. The brutal amusemeuts, I am happy to think, are 
becoming less and less in their number. Bull-baiting and 
bear-baiting are thiugs of the past' and if cock-fighting is 
practised — as I am afraid it is, not far from Birkenhead occa- 
sionally — it is done surreptitiously. I speak at any rate from 
ofiìcial know]edge, which came to me as to practices in the 
county of Chester some years ago, when, I think, they were 
patronised not only by the comnion people, but even by a 
magistrate or two — (laughter) — mIio had given into the irre- 


sistible attractions of what had been the amnsement of his 
early yoiith. Well, they are disappearing. I am sorry to say 
some amusements of a brutal character still remain. We 
have stiU among us a good deal of dog-fighting, and we have 
stiU what I suppose must be considered a popular diversion 
amongst the most degraded of our classes, and that is^ a little 
wife-beatiug. (Laughter.) As to pleasures in general, to my 
mind they are absolutely necessary to manhind. Life, in my 
opinion, would be intolerable if it were not relieved from 
time to time by its pleasures ; and it is the duty of those who 
are more happüy situated to do all they can to promote and 
to extend innocent amusements for the people. I know that 
perhaps the very greatest of modern Welshmen — who, how- 
ever, had the misfortune to be born on the wrong side of the 
Wye — I mean Sir George Cornewall Lewis — once said that 
" life would be very tolerable if it were not for its amuse- 
ments"; but when he said that, he had in his eye the frivolous 
amusements of fashionable life, in which he found but little 
pleasure. He had his own amusements and diversions,which 
were to him what an Eisteddfod, no doubt, is to a Welshman, 
or what an occasional game of crichet is to a couutry rector, 
who wishes to recall the happy days of Eton and of 
Oxford. It was during the time that he held the seals of 
the Home Office that he roused himself by writing a work 
upon the astronomy of the ancients, and it is reported that 
within a fortnight of the time that he took the seals of the 
War Of&ce, some friend of his, on calling at the oífice, found 
on his desk a treatise on'the " Defensive Armour of the Lyca- 
donians" — a treatise which it must be presumed he was 
studying rather for amusement and diversion than for any 
assistance it might render him in providing proper arms 
for the English forces. But with respect to the Eis- 
teddfod, it does not seem to me to fall within the third 
category I have mentioned, as an amusement which can be 


turuecl into an instruction, and also into an elevation of 
the national character, especiaUy if properly used. Now, 
if there is one expression in that very kind address to 
which I have listened with which I find fault, it is, perhaps, 
that 1 think the educational side of the Eisteddfodau is rather 
tûo much dwelt upon. It has its educational side ; but let 
us be bold and manly, and say that it has also, and to a 
very great extent, and perhaps principally, the object of 
popiüar amusement. But we want to make even our 
amusements instructive and educational. ISTo doubt it may 
be said that music is much more than au amusement ; 
that, if properly followed, it niay be made, like poetry 
or anything else, an instrument of education; but, on the 
whole, music as practised is a refiuiug amusement, and I am 
happy to say that iu my day 1 have seen a most extraordinary 
advance iu the cultivatiou of music, aud that advance 
throughout Wales has been very largely due to the Eistedd- 
fodau, to the competitions, aud to the meaus they afíbrd to 
each choir of seeiug what progress other choirs have made, 
aud, above all, to the judicious aud often courageous advice, 
such as has been tendered to the various choirs during this 
meeting by Professor Macfarreu, and by other distiu- 
guished members of the musical world. I wish to say 
most emphatically that, living as I do iu a thick popula- 
tiou of the working classes, T have found the cultivatiou 
of music to have a most admirable efíect ou tlie people. 
lu the village of Mountain Ash, which is a creation of 
yesterday you may say, we have a very considerable number 
of choirs, and I think I should hardly be exaggerating if I 
said that in a iDopulation of some 8,000 people there are 
at least 800 who devote tliemselves steadily to their im- 
provement in the knowledge of music. I would also 
say that among those eight hundred there are hardly any 
who might not be considered as most excellent and credit- 


able specimens of tlie working classes. It used to be sup- 
posed tliat the practice of music led to effeminacy, or occa- 
sionally to profligacy ; tbat it conducted almost immediately 
to tbe public-bouse. But we find exactly tbe contrary, 
and tbat tbere are no persons more self-respecting tban 
tbose wbo beloug to tbe various cboirs. And I may also 
add — and I tbink it wiU not be witbout interest to some 
of my bearers — tbat my family, being extremely fond of 
music, bave been witbin tbe last year or two bonoured by 
tbe visits of two of tbe most eminent professors of music in 
tbis country — I mean Signor Eandegger and Mr. Jobn Farmer 
of Harrow, On eacb occasion I invited tbe neiobbouringf 
cboirs to come and perform before tbem, and tbey bad in 
private assured nie, not only of tbe pleasure witb wbicb tbey 
bad listened to tbem, but of tbe admiration and surprise 
tbey bad experienced in seeing so mucb progress made 
against so many difficulties and witb so few advantages. 
In one of tbe competing cboirs tbe otber day — tbe Aberdare 
cboir — out of one bundred and fifty members some fifty- 
six came from tbis village of Mountain Asb. Well, I ani 
sorry tbey were beaten. But I am told, for tbe credit of 
Wales, tbat tbere was a clioir wbo could beat so good a 
cboir. I felt sometbing like tbe Spartan lady of old, wbo, 
wben ber son was brougbt bome dead to ber on bis 
sbield, said sbe tbanked God tbere were in Sparta still 
remaining five bundred at least as good as be. And if 
tbe Aberdare clioir (with tbe Mountain Asb cboir) bas 
attained, as it justly bas attained, a very considerable re- 
putation in South as I believe in Nortb Wales, it is a credit 
to tbe Principality tbat tbere bas been one found to give 
tbem a sound beating. And I may add, wbat perbaps 
may be considered presumptuous in me to add, tbat I 
most entirely concurred with tbe criticisms oíîered by Pro- 
fessor Macfarren on tbat occasion. Tbe defects tliat lie 


observed were jiist tlie defects that I had observed ; and I 
have no doubt that they wiU derive a useful lesson from the 
advice which he so kindly tendered to them. 

Now with respect to the literary side of Eisteddfodau, 
about that I know opinions vary very much. Some say that 
so much eífort is made in all directions to obtain prizes — the 
various literary prizes ofPered — that it cannot but have a good 
eff'ect upon the national character; and, upon the whole, I 
must say I ani inclined to that view of the question. But 
then it is of the utmost importance that a high and correct 
staudard of excellence sliould be constantly maintained, and 
it was with reference to that that I ventured to make some 
observations wliich were then very much misunderstood. 
The two points on which I objected to Eisteddfodau, as I 
understood them, were that there was too niuch a habit 
of self-laudation. Like Addison, all we Welshmen were 
expected to sit and attend to our own plaudits. We heard 
that it was cjuite true that England had produced very great 
men ; there was Shakespeare, there was Milton, there was 
Cromwell, and there was the Duke of Wellington ; but in all 
of these there was a trace of Welsh blood in their veins, 
without wliich they would uot have been the men they were. 
(Laughter.) And although I have a strong feeling myself 
for the heroes that our country has produced, it is to me a 
matter of congratulation and pleasure that I have not in the 
speeches which I have read during the last three days ob- 
served one singie reference to Caractacus or Sir Thomas 
Picton. Nor, again, have I seen or heard — wliat I have 
often read and heard — a comparison, very unjust in it- 
self, between the popular amusements of the Welsh and 
those of the English. On the one side you took the Eis- 
teddfod in its most elevating aspect, and on the other 
you took düg-fighting and cock-fighting, and said, " There 
is the amusement of the English." (Laughter.) Now, I 


tliink all those sort of disparagiug comparisons are niost 
injurious. No doubt a Welsliman may be fairly proud of 
the Eisteddfod, but let liim be proud without disparaging 
his neighbours. Let us be modest, and remember what- 
ever natural gifts the Welsh may hare, at this time 
Wales, perhaps from no fault of her own, does not hold 
a very distinguished place in the educational statistics of 
tliis country. Takiug such means as we have of com- 
paring the educatioual advancement of different parts of 
the country — I mean the signing of tlie marriage register, 
which is one, almost the only test we can apply — it 
appears that Wales and Lancasliire, who are now brought 
together iu this room, are at tlie very bottom of the list. A 
very eminent friend of mine suggested to me the reason why 
the Welsh showed so badly was on account of the inteuse 
national modesty of the brides and bridegrooms, who were 
well able to sign their names, but shrank froni doing so 
in the excitement of that particular moment ; and also 
because they were afraid of not doing it well, and there- 
fore preferred not doing it at alL I have never observed 
among tlie defects of my countrymen any exaggerated sense 
of modesty. It seems to me they have always had a great 
deal of self-possession, much more so than the English ; aud 
I should say most Welshmen were more self-possessed thau 
Englishmen. Englishmen have a more robust mind, but it 
is more slow. I cannot, therefore, accept that solution. I 
believe that iu matters of education Engiand, on tlie whole, 
is considerably in advauce of Wales, and that these are com- 
parisons which it is useful to make. It is not for us to exalt 
ourselves for the possessiou of certaiu advantages, but to iu- 
stitute a natural comparison, in order to see in wdiat points 
we are wanting, and to see that those points are reduced 
to the lowest limit ; and I have no doubt myself that 
the progress which will be made during the next teu or 


twenty years in national education, uncler the Elementary 
Educatiou Act of 1870^ will soon place the people of 
Wales in a creditable position, as compared with other 
parts of the country. I wish I couhl say as much for our 
higher education, because there arise difficulties which we 
have been able to overcome with respect to popular element- 
ary education. The country, rich and all alike, have gener- 
ously put their hands in their pochets to provide a system of 
national education for the poorer classes, for those who 
needed assistance. But we cannot expect them to do so, 
except perliaps in a very limited degree, to provide education 
for the richer and easier classes. What has been the result 
in England ? Enormous sums have been left by generous 
persons from time to time for endowing grammar schools; 
and the result has been that the country is pretty well 
covered with a network of schools, many of wliich have fallen 
into neglect, but which, by the judicious legislation of past 
years, have been reformed. Wales has its share, but a much 
smaller share, and the provision made for what are called the 
middle classes of the country are very inadequate. Our 
higher classes have no difficulty in going to the best public 
schools in England, but you cannot expect the chihlren of 
our struggiing middle classes to cross tlie border in the same 
manner as the chihh-en of the richer classes. If we want to 
have an effective system of middle class education, we must 
provide it for ourselves ; and remembering that after all that 
is the class that on the whole directs the industry of the 
country, and even directs the morality of the couutry — for 
we look to that class for the supply of all our most energetic 
business men, and we look to that class for the main supply 
of our ministers of religion — it is of the highest importance 
that those nien sliould have the means of an excellent 
education. But not only have we no means of educa- 
ting them iu our schools or preparing them for a higher 


eclucation, but the means of higher educating tlieniselves have 
up to this time been most lamentably wanting. It is quite 
true that primarily for the benefit of the Church of England 
in Wales the coUege of St. David's, Larapeter, was founded 
by Mr. Harford, an Euglishman, but that was for young 
clergymen. It is also quite true the trustees of that esta- 
blishment have nobly and generoüsly thrown open their 
coUege to all who go there, whether they wish to enter the 
church or not, and they are enabled to do so without any 
interference with their religious belief ; but we know tliat it 
has received the stamp of a Church of England college, and 
practically I believe three or four at the outside go to St. 
David's, Lampeter, for the purpose of receiving a good lay 
education. Then an attempt has been made, which I hope 
will be a successful attempt, and I hope that a second will 
soon be made, to found a good secular college at Aber- 
ystwith. It is by the extension of such coUeges as that 
at Aberystwith that I look for the intellectual elevation of 
my countrymen, and for full justice being done to our natural 
abilities. Let me put before you, as a question which is 
only one among many — what are the dif&culties that the 
Nonconformist ministers of our country have to go through 
who wish to provide themselves with a good education, iu 
order that they may command influence with their flocks ? 
"Wliat can they do ? Eew of them can afford to go to the 
good schools in England. In Wales, the schools are by no 
means sufíìcient to give them a good education up to the 
time they enter a university. They do as they can. They 
struggle on, and present themselves to a theological college, 
go through three or four years of such instruction as they 
receive there, and are then entered on the ministry. A 
certain proportion of themj at least geuerally the most distin- 
guished of them, strive by winning scholarships founded by 
generous persons to obtain the means of going to a Scotch 


uniyersity, and yoii will tìud that a large proportion of the 
educated clergy iu AYales ]iave received their educatiou at 
Glasgow and Edinburgh. Why ? Because in Scotland there 
are eminently popular institutions. They are made to take 
those up who have been educated at the national schools of 
the country, to receive them at the early age of íìfteen or 
thereabouts, and to complete their education by nineteen. 
Now at tlre Engiish universities, on the contrary, the position 
is quite different. The education begins in the English univer- 
sities at nineteen and íìnishes at about twenty-three, and no 
man has the slightest chance of obtaining the honours, the 
distinctions, and the rewards of the great English univer- 
sities of Oxford and Cambridge, who up to the age of nineteen 
has not received the very best education which tliis country 
is capable of giving him. Well, how can we expect the 
poorer classes, out of whom so many of our Dissenting 
ministers are drawn, to find the means of an exceUent educa- 
tion up to nineteen, and then to send them all to universities 
like those of Eugland ? There is nothing more striking — and 
I say it has occurred to me long ago, but I was glad to see 
the other day that the point had again been referred to in 
the interesting controversy tbat is now going on with respect 
to the future of Jesus College — there is nothing more in- 
teresting, and at the same time more distressing, than the 
comparison between the literary j)osition of Wales two 
hundred years ago and its present one. There is a book well 
known in the literary world, Wood's Äthen^ Oxonieiisis, which 
I think was published about one hundred and fifty or two 
hundred years ago, which contains an accouut of the men 
who had distinguished themselves at the university of Oxford. 
Turn over the pages of that book and you will hardly turn 
over one in which you wiU not find the name of one or 
two or three Welshmen. The preparation of Welshmeu who 
attained distinction at Oxford in those times is truly astonish- 


ing, and very difíiciilt of explanation. But one advantage, 
at any rate, tliey had tlien wliicli they have not now, and 
that is that education, not being so prolonged as it is at 
jDresent at the universities, they were enabled to go froni the 
country grammar schools to Oxford at the age of fifteen, and 
to complete their education at nineteen. All those means of 
education are now withliehl, nnd there is probably at this 
moment not only in the whole Dissenting community of 
ISTorth and South Wales hardly a single minister who has 
availed himself of the advantages of those great institutions, 
while a very large proportion of tlie clergy of the Church of 
England in Wales have also been unable to pursue their 
studies there. AVell, now, this is a great national misfortune 
so far as Wales is concerned, and it behoves us, it seems to 
me, to bring lionie to our people the means of a cheap educa- 
tion, one suited to their present position and to their future 
objects in life. And tliat can only be by providing them 
with a higher education, whicli shaU cease, so far as the 
public teaching is concerned, at the time when the teaching 
at the Engiish universities begins. Tliat has been the object 
of the excellent men who bestirred themselves to found the 
college at Aberystwith ; and when I use that epithet you 
will at once understand that I am not tahing any credit for 
being one of those men, because I joined the movement after 
it had already attained considerable success. But it seemed 
to me a wise and excellent plan, and I hope, old as I am, to 
live to see the time when, not ouly the college of Aberyst- 
with sliall have received a very large extension, but when 
similar coUeges shall have been founded in various parts 
of Wales. Is it not monstrous — does it not reflect dis- 
grace upon the Principality which, once poor, has become 
almost as wealthy as any other part of the empire — that Scot- 
land has its four universities, each of which contains many 
schools, whilst Wales has only one coUege set aside for general 


teacliing in secular knowledge, unless we also include Lam- 
peter, wdiich to a certain extent now fulíìls tliose conditions, 
but it is subject to the observations I have ventured to make 
upon it. This matter having been brought fairly before the 
Welsh people, will they allow it to remain where it is ? I 
have seen predictions, I cannot understand why, that even 
this first attempt at Aberystwith is about to fail. Ladies and 
gentlemen, do not believe it. It will not fail. (Applause.) 
It shall not fail, (Eenewed applause.) On all sides we are 
receiving marks of sympathy — practical marks of sympathy. 
Every year we are receiving benefactions of generous persons ; 
every week almost we are receiving some notice that at some 
future time there will be somethincf for tliis struo-oling insti- 

o oo o 

tution in South Wales. I believe all we want to do is to 
understand what our objects are ; that we are not supplanting 
Oxford or Cambridge, not preventing Welshmen from going 
to Oxford or Cambridge to get an education ; that w^e throw 
no impediment in the way of enjoying the advant8.ges of 
Oxford and Cambridge ; but that what we are doing is to 
bring home to the hearths and homes of our own people the 
means of possessing an education equal to that which is 
given to the people of Scotland and Ireland. Tliere is 
sometimes a danger that iustitutions like these Eistedd- 
fodau sliould divert the mind from the really serious and 
hard work of education. We are apt to think that becanse 
we have this sort of literary institution among us we are 
doing great things ; but, ladies and gentlemen, mucli as I 
sympathise with all these efforts, believe me, the amouut of 
work and the amouut of talent required for winning a prize 
at Eisteddfodau is not tliat which wilL qualify a man for the 
arduous work of life. One likes to sec the efíbrt made ; one 
likes to see the exhibition of talent ; Init we know very well 
that real education implies heavy, long, steady, and con- 
tinuous labour, aud without that nothing can be done ; and 


it is jiist tlie means of that steady contiuuous labour in higher 
education in which Wales is entirely wanting. Now I confess 
that I rose fuUy prepared to pass from the subject of Eistedd- 
fodau into the subject of national education in Wales ; but I 
did not intend to divert your attention so long from the 
proper objects of the Eisteddfod, in which amusement is 
joined with instruction, to these more serious subjects. The 
reason why, after the long interval of twenty years, I have 
consented once more to preside at an Eisteddfod, was my 
sentiment of gratitucle to the people of Wales for the feeling 
they have shown at recent Eisteddfodau towards this effort 
we are mahing to improve education in Wales. (Hear, hear.) 
The Carnarvon Eisteddfod forwarded to us a sum of no less 
than £600. (Applause.) At other great Eisteddfodau — T 
forget at this moment the names — similar sympathy and 
liberality has been shown. I say nothing about the present 
Eisteddfod. Let those who conduct it act as they think right. 
I liope it wiU be a profitable one. I have no doubt that the 
money, whichever way it is employed, will be useful for the 
benefìt of the people of Wales ; but, having seen at these 
Eisteddfodau marks of sympathy with a true liberal educa- 
tion in Wales, I could not, when my friend Mr. Eobert Jones 
and other gentlemen asked me to preside at this Eisteddfod, 
refuse to show my respect for an institution to which I am so 
much beholden. (Loud applause.) 

Eebíe\t)ö of ^ooíiö. 

Lectures on Welsh Philology. By Peofessor PiHYS. 
2iid Edition. Londoii : Trübner & Co. 1878. 

Its great publisliing liouses are some of the maryels of Lou- 
doii. The intelligence they bring to bear on the conduct of 
their business is such as the outer world has little conception 
of. Experience, it is true, aids them in avoiding rocts and 
shoals ; but without a keen insight into the future, its tastes 
and requirements, they would but ill discharge their duty to 
themselves or to the innumerable readers of their publications. 
Through their extraordinary acumen certain houses have 
acquired the confidence of the publie ; and the vahie of a 
book is enhanced or depreciated by the name of the fìrm on 
its title-page. In the fìrst half of the present century, the 
name of Pichering stamped a book with high value, and it 
stiU continues to do so. Auctioneers of literary property 
and second-hand boohsellers record it in their catalogues 
almost as they do that of Elzivir or Aldus. In the present 
day the names of publishers such as the Longmans and John 
Murray, not only give an additional value to a publication, 
but greatly increase its circulation. 

We doubt, however, that among them all there can be 
found a more enterprising publisher than Mr. Trübner. 
While the larger houses consult the prevailing taste, and 
sail down with the popular current, responding to the exi- 
gencies of the million, Mr. Trübner, as though he looked 
witli indifference on botli profit and popularity, confines his 
energies to the exigencies of science, literature, and language. 
Would the philologist, ethnologist, antiquary, or scientific 
scholar fìud the works essential to his craft, he wends his 


way to Mr. Trübner, almost witliont fear of disappointment. 
As a proof of our statemeut, ^\13 have now on our table three 
worlcs of high character, but whicli must necessarily be con- 
fined in their circulation to the class for whom they are 
specially intended — Mr. Ehŷs's Lectures, Letters and Pajjcrs 
on PJiilology by Lord Strangford, and a Dictionary of Enfjlish 
Etymolügy by Mr. Hensleigh Wedgwood. 

Of Mr. Ehŷs's Lectiires we have already spolren when his 
íìrst edition appeared. It would be impossible to exaggerate 
the importance of this work to every Cymric student. Like 
a subtle key, despite innumerable and intricate wards through 
which it turns, it unlocks the mysteries of Celtic philology aud 
reveals the rich treasures of etymology hidden in our grand old 
tong},ie. But we must refrain, that we may notice some of the 
peculiarities and additions contained in this new edition. 

The larger extracts from Latin, without expunging the 
original text, are translated into English. 

Mr. Rhŷs had been challenged by M. d'Arbois de Jubain- 
ville on the subject of ancient British numismatics, on the 
supposition that they made against his theory of the classifi- 
cation of the Celts ; but, as far at least as tlie coins are con- 
cerned, Mr. Ehŷs has turned the tables on his opponent, fol- 
lowing very much in the direction of Dr. John Evans's book 
on tlie coins of the Ancient Britons. 

But as we begin to enumerate the changes and improve- 
ments in the present edition, we find we are overwhelmed 
with their number. They occur on almost every page. 
Though in themselves small aud sometimes of a trifling cha- 
racter, they form a whole of considerable importance. Most 
advance has perhaps been rnade in the early Brythonic in- 
scriptions. The number of epitaphs has been increased 
— several of them are quite new — while the readings of 
others have been completed. Mr. Rhŷs seems to have been 
very anxious to render the minutire of his book as perfect as 


its more important parts. Tliese, wliile costing perliaps an 
infìnity of troiible, will be appreciated only by tlie exact 
philological student. We trust that many an edition will be 
called for, wben this second one shall have been exhausted. 

A DiCTiON'ARY OF English Etymology. By Hensleigh 
Wedgwood, Avith an Introduction on the Origin of Lan- 
guage. 3rd Edition. London : Trilbner & Co. 1878. 

This is an excellent edition of a very valuable book, which 
has been carefully revised and enlarged. We notice it, how- 
ever, for its Celtic, and more especially for its Cymric etymo- 
logies. ]Mr. Wedgwood has made considerable advance in 
this particular field of enquiry ; though, in common witli all 
English etymologists, he has still much fallow ground to 
break up. The want of a more thorough knowledge of the 
Celtic family of languages keeps our lexicograj)hers in con- 
tinual thraldom. They search for roots anywhere rather than 
where they would be patent to them. Space precludes us 
from gÌYÌng instances ; but we must mention one as a testi- 
mony of our indictment. VJ^e turn, in ]Mr. Wedgwood's 
Didionari/, to Bctstarcl, of which he speaks as foUows : "Ap- 
parently of Celtic origin from Gael — haos, lust, fornication." 
But there he stops. Of the latter syllable, tard, he gives no 
explanation ; but a mere tyro in Celtic etymology would see 
at once that it is nothing else tlian au Anglified form of 
tlie Cymric has, base, and tcirddu, to spring from. Bastard 
being simply base-born. 

Original Letters and Papers of the late Viscount 
Straxgford upon Philological axd Kindred Subjects. 
Edited by Yiscountess Strangford. London : Trübner 
and Co. 1878. 

These papers are very interesting ; aud in some parts touch 
upon Cymric philology and phonology. In a letter addressed 


to Mr. Freeman, whicli will be found at page 160, Lord 
Strangford makes some original remarks on tlie terms Cym- 
ric, Gwyddyl, Gael, etc. We can only call our readers' atten- 
tion to the book itself, wliicli, like everything else that 
comes from the pen of Lord Strangford, is worthy of a care- 
ful study. 

The Ancient British Chürch : a Historical Essay. By 
JOHN Pryce, M.A., Yicar of Bangor. London: Long- 
mans, Green, & Co. 1878. 

This is an excellent History of the Early Church in Britain, 
and written in a broad loving spirit. We congratulate Mr. 
Pryce, not only on the lucid, masterly style in which his 
history is couched, but on the admirable arrangement of his 
facts and dates. He has been not only industrious, but 
painstaking in dealing witli the subject, and we trust his 
reward will be a very numerous class of readers. The notes, 
which are as extensive as the text, are very interesting, and 
wiU repay a careful perusal. 

But what strikes us as most admirable in the book is the 
care with which the author refers abnost every incident he 
relates to the source whence he has derived it. He leaves 
nothing unproved. And what a host of witnesses has lie 
summoned to bear testimony to his narrative. They are 
almost a legion. "We trust to recur to this book again. 

Jeremiah : AN Oratorio. By John Owen (Owain Alaw). 
London: C. Jefferys, Berners Street. 

This work is interesting as a duoglott ; the words are in both 
Welsh and English. The oratorio — and some of the melodies 
are very beautiful — testiíìes to the hand of a master. The 
rhapsodies of the old Hebrew prophet are excellently ex- 
pouuded by the music of Mr. Owen. 


The Art Journal for January 1856, June 1856, Januaiy 
1864, Januaiy 1867, and January 1870. 

In a vroYk like tlie Gymmrodor, dedicated to Art as well as to 
Literature, it ■would be unpardonable not to give prominence 
to tlie many liigh-class works of art that have sprung into 
Hfe under the chisel of our national artist — Joseph Edwards. 
And yet we feel that we are treading on delicate if not danger- 
ous ground, — such is our love for the man, for his high cha- 
racter and noble, loving heart, and more especially for his self- 
sacrifice in the cause of some whom he deems it a sacred duty 
to assist, though not bound by either ties of relationship or 

Our review must necessarily be of a retrospective charac- 
ter ; but it is with no little pride that we draw attention to 
three or four beautiful examples that have been fitly repre- 
sented by exquisite engravings in the Ärt Journal. Two of 
these appeared in the year 1856 — " Eeligion Consoling 
Justice", and " The Last Dream". These pictures are full of 
pathos, which is again enhanced by the delicacy wherewith 
they have been worked out. A delightful tenderness floats 
about tliem. His " Yision", which appeared in the same 
journal in 1864, is remarkable for the grace of its figures and 
their artistic grouping. The "Angel of Light" — January 
1870 — is, however, our ideal of the genius of the sculptor. 

We are afraid, we repeat^ of being deemed too eulogistic 
of a national artist. Let the Art Journal, then, speak for us. 
The following paragraph, to which our attention has been 
caUed just as we were going to press, appeared but a few 
weeks ago, and will be found at page 174 : — 

" Ä Bust hy Joscjjh Fdwards, although a work of consider- 
able merit, will be little noticed among the crowd in the 
sculpture passages at the Eoyal Academy. It will not be so 
when it reaches its destinatiou in South Wales. It is the 


bust of an eminent and largely-gifted Welsh scholar, Thomas 
Stephens, and is prodiiced as a corapliment from his conntry- 
men, admirers as well as friends of the author of The Litera- 
ture of the Gymry. The Welsh are proverbially clan-ish — 
we cannot say what word they would use to denote the reso- 
lution with which they help one another — and that is surely 
not a fault. They may well be proud of their countr}Tnan, 
Joseph Edwards. There are artists who will make as good 
busts, but there is no living sculptor who can produce monu- 
mental work so pure, so refined, so essentially holy. There 
seems to be in his mind and soul a natural piety that mani- 
fests itself in his work ; an out-pouring of a lofty religious 
sentiment ; a true conception of what is just and right. 
There is no one to whom we would so instantly assign the 
task of perpetuating in marble what is lovely and of good 
report; he gives a sweet repose to death, and makes the 
change a sure indication of happiness. Perhaps that is 
the highest, as it is certainly the holiest achievement of the 
sculptor's art. If we desired evidence to confirm our opinion 
as to the genius of Mr. Edwards in this especial and most 
important branch of art, we should refer to several engraving3 
given in the Art Journal during years past. The artist is in 
the prime of life. Yes; "Wales may well be proud of the 
Welshman, Josepli Edwards." 

jl3oííce ûf fortíjcomuìg 93ooît, 

It is with no little pleasure that we announce a new work 
by our talented countryman, Mr. Lewis Morris. What gives 
us peculiar satisfaction is, that it will be a Drama on a 
Wdsh subject. Its title is Gwen, and it will be dedicated to 
the Eight Honourable John Bright, M.P. If we mistahe not, 
our readers will find that Mr. Morris has, in this new poem, 
excelled all his previous achievements. 




For the Year ending the 9th of Novemher, 1878. 

DuEiXG the year ten new members have been admitted. 

By tlie lamented deatli of Mr. Jolm Griffitli (Gohebydd), 
the Society has suffered a loss they can hardly hope to repair. 
The proposal to reYÌve the Society in 1873 was made by him. 
He also rendered valuable assistance in organising the i-e- 
vived Society; and ever maintained a deep interest in its 
welfare and progress. 

Eeference was made in our last Annual Eeport to a de- 
cision to obtain a Medal for the Society, which might be 
awarded for the encouragement of certain objects coming 
within the scope of the Society's aim. The Couucil have the 
gratification of announcing that one of their ]\Iembers, ]\Ir. 
Joseph Edwards, has designed a Medal of siogular merit and 
appropriateness,which the Council have unanimously adopted. 
A full description of this design will, in due time, be commu- 
nicated to the Members. 

Four Papers, of great interest, were read before the Society 
during the past year, namely : — 

1. By Professor McKenny Hughes, M.A., " On the 
Prehistoric Eaces of Britain." Chairman, J. Ignatius 
AVilliams, Esq. 

2. By Profes.sor Eudler, F.G.S., " On the Mineral 


202 REPORT. 

Wealtli of Wales." Chairman, tlie Rev. Eobert Jones, 
B.A., Yicar of AU Saints', Eotlierliitlie. 

3. By Jolm Thomas, Esq. (Pencerdd Gwalia), Harpist 
to Her Majesty the Qiieen, " On the National Music of 
Wales." Chairman, ]\Iajor W. Cornwallis West, Lord 
Lieutenant of Denbiíîhshire. 

4. By Professor Cowell of Camhridge, " On Dafydd ab 
Gwüym." Chairman, B. T. Williams, Esq., Q.C., M.P. 

With Y Cymmrodor for the past year there were issued to 
the Members the remaining portion of the reprint of Wyllyam 
Salesbury's Dictionary, and a large selection of the Worl'si of 
lolo Goch, Poet Laureate of Owain Glyndwr, as well as a 
continuation of the History of the Cymmrodorion Society. 

Arranoements were made with the Committee of the Bir- 
kenhead Eisteddfod for attaching to that Eisteddfod a 
" Cymmrodorion Section", in connection with which Meetings 
were to be held, and Papers read on subjects embraced by 
the objects of this Society. The management of the Section 
was delegated by the Council to a Committee composed of 
the foUowing gentlemen : — Professor T. McKenny Hughes, 
M.A. (Chairman) ; Mr. Stephen Evans ; Mr. Ivor James ; 
Eev. Eobert Jones, B.A. ; IMr. Lewis Morris, M.A. ; Mr. 
Hugh Owen ; ]\Ir. T. M. Williams, B.A. ; and Mr. Howel 
Thomas, who acted as the Honorary Secretary of the Section. 

At the fìrst meeting of the Sectiou, Sedley Taylor, Esq., 
M.A. of Cambridge, delivered a Lecture " On the Acoustics 
of Music." This Meeting was fairly attended; but the 
attendance subsequently was not such as to encourage the 
holding of further Meetings during that Eisteddfod. The 
Council do not, however, doubt that the work of the Section 
may be resumed at the next National Eisteddfod with the 
confìdent hope of success. 

The Council desire to express theú' strong sympathy with 

EEPORT. 203 

tlie efforts whicli are beiug made to oppose the proposed 
alienation from Wales of those Scholarships and Exhibitions 
at Jesus CoUege, Oxford, which, in accordauce with the 
Wills of the Founders, have hitherto beeu restricted to 
natives of the Priucipality ; aud they have pleasure iu 
stating that a Meeting of the Members of this Society will 
shortly be convened to consider the subject, aud to determiue 
ou the best measures to be adopted for protecting the right- 
fiü heritage of the Welsh iu connectiou with the College iu 

A Statement is appeuded to this Eeport, shewing the Ee- 
ceipts and Expeuditure of the Society duriug the past year. 
The total Eeceipts (with the balance brought forward from 
the pre^dous year) amounted to £206 13s. 8d., aud the Ex- 
penditure to £197 Os. 4d. There is, therefore, a balauce of 
£9 13s. 4d. standing to the credit of the Society. 

Signed, on behalf of the Council, 


7, Queen Yictoría Streei, Chaimian. 

9tk Novemher, 1878. 



SiE Wateins Williams "Wynn, Barfc., M.P. 

The Right Hon. Earl Powis 
The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of St. Asaph 
The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Bangor 
The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of St. David's 
The Right Rev. The Loi-d Bishop of Llandaff 
The Righfc Hon. Lord Penrhyn 
The Righfc Hon. Lord Aberdare 

Sir Thomas D, Lloyd, Barfc., Bronwydd 

Charles Bath, Esq., Ffynone, Swansea 

RiCHARD Davies, Esq., M.P. 

Morgan Lloyd, Esq., Q.C., M.P. 


LovE JoNES Parry-, Esq. 

Mr. Serjeant Parry, Temple 

J. H. PULESTON, Esq., M.P. 

The Very Rev. Dr. Stewart Perowne, Dean of Peterborough 

Henry Richard, Esq., M.P. 

E. M. RicHARDS, Esq, 

Captain Edmünd Vernet, R.N., Rhianva 

H. HüssEY ViviAN, Esq., M.P. 

W, Cornwallis-West, Esq., Lord Lieutenant, Co. Denbigh 

GwiLYM Willums, Esq., Pontypridd 

Charles W. Williams Wtnn, Esq., M.P. 

Stephen Evans, Esq., Old Change (Ghairman) 
Agabeg Aviet, Esq., Temple 
BowEN, J. W., Esq., Q.C., Temple 


Dayies, JüiiN, Esq., Loudou Road 
Dayies, JoHxNr, Esq., The Treasury 
Dayies, The Rev. D. J., Merchant Taylors' School 
Dayies, Wm., Esq. {Mynorydd), Euston Road 
Edwards, Joseph, Esq., Robert Street, N.W. 
Griffith, John (Gohehydd), (deceased) 
Hamer, Thomas, Esq., Wood Street 
James, Ivor, Esq., Thornton Heath 
Jeneins, R. Henrt, Esq., AbchurCh Lane 
Jeremt, W. D., Esq., Lincohi's lun 
JONES, The E,ev. Etan, Welsh Church 
JONES, The Rev. Robert, B.A., Rotherhithe 
JONES, WiLLiAM, Esq. (Gwrgant) 
Lewis, David, Esq., Temple 
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VOL. n. Q 



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Statcmcnt of Rcceipts and Erpeiiditnre, 
From 9th Xovember, 1877, to 9th Novembkr, 1878. 

Dr. £ s. d. 

To Balauce from last 

,, Subscriptions 

16 4 2 
190 !i 6 

£20(3 13 8 

Cr. £ s. .]. 

By Y Cifmmrndor ... 112 G 6 
,, PrintÌDg & Station- 

cry ... ... 11) 10 

,, Eire of Rooms and 

other Expenses of 

Lectures 16 líS " 

,, Secretary's Salary 

and E.xpenses, in- 

cluding Arrears for 

1877 :ì.T 

,, Rostages and Petty 

Expenses ... 1.5 19 4 

197 4 
,, Ealauce in hand ... 9 1."! 4 

£206 m 8 

Examiued and fouud correct. 
Noc. 2o?/í, 1878. HowEL Thomas. 



















1. CiiAiR^ cred, ced cynnydd, 
Creawdr llii bedydd,- 
Crist, Fab Duw Ddofydd;^ 
Cynnydd dybedd ;* 

Gan na wn pa bryd, 
Pa awr, pa ennyd, 
Y'm dyccych o'r byd — 
Ddiwyd^ ddiwedd ; 

Argiwydd Dad mad, mawr, 
Eurgledd^ nef a llawr, 
11. Ergiyw fi bob awr, 

Gwawr'' gwirionedd. 

1 Crair cred, ' the ornameut of ^ Ddiwyd. If this word be taken 
our faith'. Crair also means, as as a compound of gu-ŷd, ' vice', 
Dr. Davies tells us, the thing taken ' passion', it "will imply that sin 
up by the hand to swear by. termiuates with dcath. 

2 Lhi hedìjdd, ' the host of bap- « Eurghdd. Eurglo.— MS. The 
tised ones'; the whole body of former term is signiíicant of God as 
Christians. holding the golden sword of justice. 

' Ddofydd. Dofydd — MS. ' Gicaicr, ' the dawn', whence 

* Cyn dydd dy hedd. — MS. light springs. It regards God as 
Cyn dydd dialedd. — MS. the source of all righteousness. 



I Ti cyffesaf, 
Ac yr acldefaf, 
Canys wyd benaf,^ 
Naf tangnefedd. 


A bechais i 'n llwyr^ 
bob gwall synwyr,! 
Ehwng llawT ag awyr, 
Llwyr argy wedd f 

21. Saith briod bechawd/ 
Glythni, a meddwdaw^d/ 
Chwant cnawd, cas ceudawd,^ 
Cadarn chwerw^edd ; 

Moethiant,'' giythineb, 
Gwneuthnr godineb, 
Casineb'^ cudeb, 

Cadarn salwedd f 

Balchder, syberwyd,^ 
Torri d'iofryd,^ 
31. Cym'ryd bwyd ammhryd,^ 
Aniryw faswedd f 

s Can's wyd benaf Naf sion', according to lolo Morgan- 

Nawdd tangnefedd. — MS. wg. 

^ Am a bechais i 'n Uwyr. — MS. ' Methineb, ciideb.— MS. 

> O bob rhyw synwyr.— MS. ' Gadw fy salwedd.— MS. 

- Ärgyiccdíl, ' detriment', ' mis- ^ Balcbder, seguryd. — MS. 

chief '. ' Torri yr ympryd.— MS. 

3 Saith brif-ffordd pechod.— jMS. ^ Bwyd amryd.— MS. Ammhryd, 

Saitli brif wỳd pechod.— MS. ' at unlawf ul seasons', such as days 

" Rhythui a meddwdawd. — MS. of fasting. 

5 Ceudawd. Geudawd.— INIS. ^ Fasicedd is here ' poUution', 

• Methiant, glothineb.— MS. though it is often used to signify 

The former term signiíies ' omis- ' pleasure', ' enjoyment'. 


Gogaiiu, tybiaw, 
Llesgu/ dymunaw, 
Llidiaw, a digiaw,^ 

Dygn greulonedd ; 

Colli pregetliau 
Ac ofierenau,*' 

Maddau y Suliau,''' • 

Meddwi â salwedd ; 

41. Gair meddwl anghred, 
Cilwg, camgerdded,^ 
Gweithred dynwared,^ 
Gwaith anwiredd ; 

Cyhuddaw gwirion, 
A cham ddych 'mygion, 
Cadarn draws holion,^ 
Hylith daeredd ; 

Gochel maddeuaint, 
Digio mewn hir haint,- 
51. Sathru maddau 'r saint, 
Braint brenhinedd f 

* Llesged. — MS. ' Brenhinedd, ' royalty'; the ab- 
' Anllaclrwydd, llidiaw, stract, perhaps, for the concrete — to 

Llid greulonedd. — MS. euhance the strength of the term. 
Dygn wythlonedd. — MS. Braint brenhiuoedd. — MS. 

^ Offerennau, ' masses'. The expressions here used prove 

' MadJau y Suìiau. The par- the devotedness of the bard to the 

dons or absolutions pronounced on Roraan Catholic religion. The for- 

the Sundays. giveness of even the saints he 

^ Golwg am gerdded. — MS. deems a privilege worthy of 

^ Di/nwared, iiere ' moclíery'. kings. 

> Drau-s holiou^ ' cross question- ■• Creiriau, see page 1, line 1. 

iug', or ' examinatious'. Some MSS. have Ijj'rau iustead of 

* Digio rhag hir haint. — MS. crcirian. 


Tyiigu aiuidonau 
Ar werthfawr greiriau,'*^ 
Camgredu ac ammau 
Geiriau gwiredd ; 

Trais, twyll, brad, cynnen, 
Murn,^ lledrad, absen, 
Llid, a chynfigen, 

Ehan pob rhiuwedd.*^ 

61. Gwag gynuwys,''' glwys Glyw, 
Gwawr mawr meirw a byw,* 
Gwirion Dad, rhad rhyw,^ 
Llyw Uaweredd ; 

Dy rad a geisiaf, 
Dy nerth a archaf, 
Dy nawdd a alwaf, 
Naf nefol-wledd ; 

Ehag cwyn gwenwynig,^ 
Ehag cŵn dietìigj 
71. Ehag cynnen dremig,^ 
Ddig ddygasedd f 

' ^fur/ì, ' a foul deed', 'murder'. of grace to some, but the sovereign 

^ lihag pob rhiedd. — MS. of the mariy.' 

■ There is considerable difficulty ^ Rhag hun gwenwyuig. — MS. 

iu this passage. Gwag gynincys is ^ Bremig. Drennig. — MS. 

probably an allusion to his own * Dig dygasedd. — MS. 

emptiness or wants, inasmuch as * Mirg migntrern, ' the exhala- 

he immediately afterwards asks for tions of a quagmire or bog'; a no 

the blessing he needed. uncommon expression of the me- 

* Clod mawr marw a byw. — diseyal poets. 

MS. 5 Caith for caeth. 

^ Rhnd rhyu\ Radryw. — MS. Gwaith gaith gethin-wern. — MS. 

We conceiye the bard's mcaning to '^ Drewiant gern uffern. 

be : ' The (ìod of truth is the giver Effaith ddygnedd. — MS, 


Eliao' drwí>' iìiwíí iniíTu-werii,* 

O i^ O O ' 

Trwy waith caitlr'' cetliern, 
Drewyanf^ cyrn uffern, 
Affaith cldygnedd ; 

Ehag trais trag 'wyddawl . 
Tan trwch callestrawl, 
Tan llwyth'^ ufíernawl 
Ffyrnig dachwedd f 

81. Ehag tanllyd sybwUj 

Tanllwyth fílani gyndwll,^ 

Tinllwm trwcli rliwdbwU/ 

Rhydar lesgedd ;- 

Rhag uffern boenau, 
A'i phoethion beiriau, 
Cadwynau, rhwyniau, 
Dreigiau drygwedd ; 


Ehag uffern byllfa, 
91. A'i gweision^ gwaetha', 
Ufíern-Uid Adda, 

Dryma' dromwedd ; 

Ehag poen a tlnydar 
Poeth-ferw tân Uachar;*' 
Pwll byddar daear — •'' 
Duoer fignedd. 

■> TanUwytJi, tanawl.— MS. » Drydar llesgedd.— MS. 

* Tuchindd, ' endiug'. ^ ^^'i fft'ilsiou dyrau. — MS. 

9 ù'i/ndwU, gymwll. — MS. ■• Taullwytli táu llachar. — MS. 
> lihwdhwU, drewbwU.— MS. Pell fyddar ddaear. 

Taullyd trwch trydwU. — MS. Duocr ddyguedd. — MS. 


Eliag llitli llwytliau bliii 
Llys uífem fegin,^ 
Llin Acldaf fyddin — 
Gwerin gwyredd. 

101. Breuhinawl Fab Mair, 
Brenhin loyw-grair, 
Brenliin nef y'th gwnair, 
Gair gorfoledd. 

Ti a faddeuaist, 
Da y meddyliaist 
Y dydd y'm prynaist 
Ar bren crogedd •"} 

Dy boen a'th alaeth, 
A'th ferthyrolaeth, 
111. Y rhai a 'i gwnaeth, 
Eurfaeth^ orfedd. 

Wrth hynny, Arglwydd, 
Cadarn da dramgwydd- 
Cydrwydd cyfyngrwydd 

^ Uffern fefjin. The Cymric be seen that the poet is constantly 

bards frequently iutroduce the changing the termination of words 

term megin, ' bellows', in their de- to suit his rhyme and cynghanedd. 

scriptions of hell. Wiliam Wyn 2 Errors have crept into these 

says : — poems by transcription, and of so 

"A'ianadldiadlam dwyn graye a character, as abiiost to 

Yn meginaw mwg annwyn." (jefy our arriving at their true 

Llafar gwlad applies the term me- meauing. It is difficult to say at 

gin nffern to one who creates dis- this time what the poet means by 

sension, an inciter of quarrels. Cadarn da dramgwydd. Should it 

' Ar bren palmwedd. — MS. not be Cadarn dy dramgwydd ? 

> Eurfuclliy for eurfaith. It will Cuhfcreddì coel oferedd. 


Gwna, Ddofydd, faddau 
Fy holl bechodau, 
A'm dwyn i^th ddeau 
Dau yu y diwedd. 

121. Fal y maddeuwyf 

A wnaethpwyd trwy nwyf 
Ar fy nghawd o glwyf, 
Glew ddigllonedd. 

drais golled, 

gawdd,^ o godded,^ 

bob eniwed, 

Cyred^ caredd. 

Eich diau deugrin'' 
Y bwyf gynnefin, 
131. Cyn rh^^ym daearin, 
Erwin orwedd. 

Lle mae lle difrad 

Ar lawr llethr gwen-wlad," 

Lle mae goleuad^ 

Ehad anrhydedd ; 

Lle mae diddanwch, 
A phob rhyw degwch, 
Lle mae dedwyddwch 
Dilwch^ orsedd. 

* Cawdd, ' offence'. g7-ìn is manifestly a corrupted forni. 

* Codded, ' tribulation'. Hence it is scarcely possible to 

* Cyred for cyrid, ' adulterous say with ■what object the bard 
loTe'. Gyred garedd. — MS. hopes to be accustomed before his 

^ Equal difficulty attends the dcscent to the grave. 
deciphering of this stanza. Deu- " 'Theslopesof thebeautifulland.' 

8 lOLO GOCIl. 

141. Lle mae cywirdeb, 
Lle mae diweirdeb, 
Lle dibechod neb/ 
Lle da buchedd f 

Lle mae gorphywys^ 
Yn ngwlad Baradwys, 
Lle mae mirain Iwys* 
Lle mae mawredd. 

Lle mae nefolion, 
Lle mae m^ddolion,^ 
151. Llnaws angylion, 

Gwirion garedd.^ 

Lle mae eglurder," 
Lle rnae dwyfolder, 
Lle mae ynifer^ 
Nefol orsedd ; 

^ ' Where its honours emit light Une. If mirain, however, be 

or splendour.' changecl into miraint^ ' beauty', it 

^ Deilwng orsedd. — MS. will in a measure vanish. Its 

i To render this line intelligible, qualifying adjective in that case 

it is necessary to divide dibechod would naturally be ghcys : but see 

into two words, di hcchod, so that note 9. 
neb may apply to the latter only. ^ This term denotes that the 

3 The short adjectives qualify poet believed in rank and order in 

sometimes the preceding and some- the lieaveuly world. 
times the following noun. There is ^ This line stands in beautiful 

consequently some diííìculty in opposition to the I28th, where we 

giving the exact rendering. If da have [/yrid garedd. 
cjualifies the preceding word ZZe, the ' He here describes the abode 

renderingof thebardwiUthen be,'A of the blessed, with its brightness 

good place f or life', or 'to enjoy lif e'. and glory and redeemed multitude. 

' Gorjjhìju-ys for gorphowys, or ^ Ynifer. In the old poets nifer 

gorphwys, ' to rest'. is sometimes ynifer, anifer, and 

^ There is great difficulty in this enifer. 


Ehif cred, ced cadair 
Arglwydd pob cyngrair, 
Erglyw fì, j\Iab Mair, 

Berthair,9 borthedd ;^" 

IGl. Cyd bwyf bechadur, 
Corphorawl natiir/ 
IHiag tostur, dolur, 
Mawr ddialedd. 

Canys wyd Frenhin 
Ar ddeau ddewin^ 
Hyd y gorllewin — ^ 

Llywiawdr mawredd. 

Canys wyf gyffesol* 
Ac edifeiriol, 
171. A Mair i'm eiriol 
Am oferedd. 

Wyd frenhinocaf.^ 
A dyledocaf, 
Can's wyd oruchaf ; 

Naf, na 'm gomedd. 

^ Berthair, the name of Gocl give tlie essential doctriues of 

spoken to Moses from the bush was, Koman Catholics as compared with 

' I am'. Protestauts : ' Couf ession, penauce, 

>» Borthedd, the portal of peace. ^ud the intercessiou of the Yirgiu.' 

, Tr- ± XI, i í J.1 ® The poet rises with his sub- 

> His uature was that of the ^ 

, , xi xr. £ J.-1. • -j. iect, aud his adoration becomes 

body rather than oi the spirit. ■' ' „ 

lofty :— " Ihou art most royal ; to 

-^ On the right hand of Divinity. ^,^^^ ^jj f^^^^y j^ ^^^ . ^^^^^^ -j^j^^^. 

^ '-To the going down of the Highest, refuse me uot." And uob 

sun." a wliit less gi'and is tlie yerse that 

* This and the lines that follow follows. 


10 lOLO GOCH. 

Er dy ddiwedd-loes, 
Er dy greuloii-gToes, 
Er poenau 'r pumoes — ^ 
BumustF cliwerwedd ; 

181. Er y gwayw efydd^ 
A 'th frathodd elfydd 
Dan dy fron, Ddofydd, — 
Ddwyfawl agwedd ; 

Er dy weliau, 
Clyw fy ngweddiau, 
Er dy grau angau 
Yn y diwedd ; 

Er dy farw loesion 
Gan ddurawl hoelion, 
191. Er y drain-goron,^ 

Dod druoaredd.^ 


Er dy buni weli,- 

Er dy gyfodi, 

Crist Celi, â 'th piTsi^ 

Ehwym fi i'th orsedd. 

Er dy ddigoniad'' 
Ar ddeau dy Dad, 
Dod im' gyfraniad 

0' th wlad a 'th wledd. 

" Pumocí^. ' Five periods.' A quisitely •wrought by means of the 

term used in theology to denote conipound terms he uses — terms, 

the ages previous to our Lord's each containing withiu itself a 

Adveut. These were divided into poem. 

five. » Dy drugaredd. — MS. 

^ Biimustl, ' hemlock', ' oxbane'. « lu His hands and feet and side. 

^ Gwayw e/i/ild. ' brazen spear'. ^ Feìsì, ' mercy'. 

ä This litany of the bard is ex- * See Isaiah liii, 11. 





Dymunaw da i'm enaid — 
Heueiddio ^r wyf,^ hyn oedd raid — 
Myned i'r lle croged Crist 
Cyu boed" y ddeu-droed ddidrist f 
Me^'u tryg}'ff y mae 'n trigaw'*' 
Ni myu y traed myned draw ; 
Cystal am ordal' yni' yw 
Fyned deirgwaith i Fynyw"^ 
A myued, cynnired'' cain, 
Ar hafoedd hyd yn Rhufain. 
11. Gwyddwn lle mynnwn fy mod, 
Ys deddfawl yw 'r eisteddfod, 

' This poem — its coutest iu- 
forius us — was written in advauced 
life. It is necessary to bear this 
iu miud for its right understaudiug. 

' Boed for bod. When Gram- 
mar aud Cynghanedd compete, the 
old bards kcep true to the jírinciples 
of tbeir distiuctiye art. Too ofteu 
is the sense aláo sacrifìced to the 
same end. Oue MS. has ' Cyd boed'. 

ä Ddidrist. There is some diffi- 
culty as to the meaniug of this 
term. If it alludes to 'a pilgrimage 
on feet weary with age', ddidrist 
wiU apply to the life beyond the 
grave ; but if , on the coutrary, his 
ulluöioü be to a pilgrimage to be 
made ere old age iucapacitates him 

for it, we must — unwilHugly — 
amend the text aud use ddydriat. 

* He was, he tells us, hale in 
body ; but his limbs refused to 
perform their office. 

^ Ordal, ' satisfaction', ' atone- 
meut'. leuau ab Rliydderch ab 
leuau Llwyd, a contemporary bard, 
has : — 

" Cystal am ordal i mi 
Dwywaith fyued at Dewi, 
A phe deuwu i Rufaiu." 

One jNIS. has : — 

" Cystal am ofal ym 'yw." 

6 IFijHijic, ' ]Meuevia', St. David's, 
the seat of the holy Archbishop. 
"^ Cjiiiiind, ' visit'. 


Ym maenoF Dclewi 'm Mynyw — 
Mangre gain, myn y grog, yw — 
Yn Nglyn Ehosyn^ mae 'r iessin/ 
Ac oliwydd a gwŷdd gwin : 
Ademmig^ musig a moes, 
A gwrlef gwŷr â gorloes,^ 
A cliytgerdd hoyw, loyw lewych,'* 
Ehwng organ achlân a chlych ; 
21. A thuriblwm^ trwm, tramawr, 
Yn bwrw scns^ i beri sawr ; 
Nef nefoedd yn gyhoedd gain, 
Ys da dref, ysdâd Eufain ;7 
Paradwys Gymru Iwys, lefn, 
Por dewis-drefn, pur dwys-drefn.^ 
Petrus fu gan Sant Patrig^ 
Am sorri Duw — amser dig ; 
Am erchi hyn, ammharch oedd, 
Iddo o'r lle a wnaddoedd •} 

8 Macnol, ' a hamlet', ' a farm'; David's was in the same condition 

here it refers to the Archbishop's as, or equal to, Rome. 

church and home, with perhaps the » This reading is mauifestly cor- 

surrouudiug religious houses. rupt ; but it is the best we can uow 

" Yn Ncjììjn Rhosyn, the Yalley of offer. 

llhos. " San' Patrig.— MS. St.Patrick 

i lessin, probably ' jessamine'. is said to have been of W elsh origiii, 

î Äclcmmicj. This word is a puzzle. and to have chosen as the field of 

The dictionaries have nothing even his ministrations the district sur- 

like it. rounding RoseYale — Gìyn Rhosyu, 

3 Ag arloes.— MS. in Deyfed— Demetia. While there, 

* Leunjch, ' brightness', ' brilli- tradition has it that au augel ap- 

ancy'; a term often applied to peared to hira, telling him ' tliat 

music, although in its origiual in- that place was not for him, but 

tention it ref ers to light only. for a child to be boru some thirty 

5 rÄîíriò/it'm, 'thurible', 'censer'. years later'. On heariug the mes- 

® Scns, ' inceuse'. sage, St. Patrick becarae surprised, 

' Ysihtd, ystàd, Bufciin ; the sorrowful, and angry. The child 

meaning probably is that St. thus predicted was St. David. 


31. ryiied ymaith o Fynyw 

Cyii geiii Dewi, da yw ; 

Sant oedd ef o nef i ni 

Cynwynol cyn ei eni ; 

Sant giân oedd pan ei ganed 

Am lioUti 'r maen graen i gred.~ 

Sant ei dad^ diymwad oedd. 

Pennadnr saint pan ydoedd. 

Santes gyd-les lygadlon 

Ei fam yn ddi nam oedd Non f 
41. Ferch Ynyr,^ fawr ei chenedl, 

Lleian*^ wiw, uwch ydiw 'r ch^vedl. 

Un bwyd a aeth yn ei ben — ' 

Bara oer a beryren — 

Ag aeth ym mhen Non wen wiw ; 

Er pan gaed penaig ydiw^ 

Holl saint y byd gyd gerynt^ 

A ddoeth^ i'r Senedd^ goeth gynt 

' Wiiadiìocdi/, for wnaeth ; tbis ^ Gynyr, tbe fatherof Non, was 

form is now obsolete. auobleman of tbe clistrictof Pebid- 

" iSîox, in tbe throes of birth, iog, in ■whicb tbe town of St. 

pressed her hands against a stone, David's is situated. 

Avhicb took the inipression as though ^ Lleiax, a daugbter of Bry- 

it bad beeu wax. In some myste- chan Brycheiniog, aud au auces- 

rious way it condoled with the tress of Non. 

sorrowing mother; part of it, then, "• From the time of her concep- 

leaped over her head and fell at ber tion, Nou Hved on bread aud water 

feet as sbe was bringiug fortb. A ouly. Hence, St. David was re- 

cburch was afterwards built ou the garded as abstemious from the 

spot, and the stone placed in the womb. lolo Gocb, however, adds 

foundations of its altar. 'a cress' to his food in the next line. 

3 Eí dad ; Sandde, tbe fatber of ^ Ydiir for ydyw, to meet the 

David, wasson of Ceredig, a prince exigeucies of the rhyme. 

from whom Ceredigion, or Cardi- ^ Geì-ynt — ? for geraint. 

ganshire, derives its name. ' Ddoeth for ddaetb in tbe dia- 

* Nox, tbe mothcr of David, was lcct of Soutb Wales. 

a nuu, aud held iu bigli reputc for ^ j^ synod held at Llauddewi 

holy life, Breíì, wbicb St. David, aftcr 



I wiandaw yn yr un-dydd 
Ei bregetli a plieth o'i ffydd. 

51. Lle dysgodd llu dewis-goetli^ 
Lle bu ^n pregethu yn goeth. 
Chw^e-mil saith-ugein-mil saint 
Ag un-fil. Wi ! o^r genfaint.^ 
Ehoed iddo fod, glod glendyd,^ 
Yn ben ar holl saint y byd. 
Codes*" — nid ydoedd resyn — 
Dan draed Dewi Frefi, fryn. 
Ef yn deg a fendigawdd 
Cantref o nef oedd ei nawdd ;''' 

61. A'r enaint^ twym arennig 
IS'i dderfydd, tragywydd trig. 
Duw a rithiawdd, dygn-gawdd di 
Ddeu-flaidd o anian ddieflig 
Deu-MT hen oedd o Dir Hud,^ 
Gwydro^ astrus a Godrud, 


repeated solicitatious, attended ; 
he preached there, it was said, 
the law and the gospel of Chiist 
so clearly and plainly, that it 
seemed as if he spake to them 
with a silver trumpet. He was 
heard by the furthermost per- 
sou in tliat great assembly, aud 
seen, too, as clearly as tlie sun is 
seen at mid-day. 

■^ The synod was composed of 
saints and the most distiuguished 
of those who held office in the 

* Genfaint, ' assembly' or ' con- 

* Ghd gìendijd ; Glod gleinyd. — 
MS. ' Tlie praise', in the sense of 
' the reward uf huUness'. I)avid 

was elected by the Synod to be 
chiof or prince of the saints of 

fi When the multitude assem- 
bled would have taken him to 
the top of the hiU to preach, he 
excused himself , aud said he would 
have no place to staud on but the 
flat ground. But as he was hold- 
ing forth, the ground arose as a 
high mount under his feet in the 
presence of the assembly. 

^ ' He blessed with blessiugs 
from heaven a district that was 
uuder his protection'; Uterally, 
' that was his protection'. 

^ Enuint, ' the unction' ; that is, 
the blessiug. 

^ Dir //«(/, ' rembrokeshire'. 



Am wneuthur, clrwg antur gynt, 

Piyw beclìod a rybuchynt."^ 

A'u mam : ba ham y bai hi 

Yn fleiddiast ? oerfel iddi ! 
71. A Dewi goeth a^u dug hwynt 

O'u hir-boen ag o'u herw-bwynt.^ 

Diwallodd Duw ei allawr ; 

Ei fagi'* a wnaeth miragl mawr; 

Yr aradr, gwyllt o redeg, 

Yrrai i'r tai, fy ior teg ! 

A'r ceirw osgl-gyrn, chwyrn a chwai, 

Gweision uthr, a'i gwas 'naethai.' 

Dyw jMawrth, Calan Mawrth,^ ym medd 

I farw aeth ef i orwedd. 
81. Bu ar ei fedd, diwedd da, 

Cain glêr yn canu gloria ; 

Engylion nef yn nglan nant 

Ar ol bod ei arwyliant. 
I bwll uffern ni fernir'' 

Enaid dyn, yn anad tir, 

' GWYDRO anrl Odiîud. Xo 
authentic account has been hauded 
down of these persons, nor yet of the 
particular sin they committed. The 
lives of St. Dayid, in The Camhro- 
British Saiuts, donot mention them. 

2 lìi/huchyììt, ' deyised', ' medi- 

3 líerw-hwìjnt, 'prsedatory state'. 
Dr. Davies translates pH'ynt, ' vale- 
tudo', ' convalesence', a meaniug 
scarcely to be found in Wm. O. 

* Fagl, ' crozier'. 
^ If \ve may he pardoned for a 
remarlí or two, we would draw at- 

teution to this beautiful passago. 
Nowhere can truer i^oetry be found 
than in the account here given of 
St. David's miraculous life and 
triumphant death ; where white- 
robed choirs are described as sing- 
ing over his entombment, and 
heaven's angels as hovering around 
the spot haliowed by his relics. 

^ Dyw ^lawrth, Caìan Mawrth. 
The saint died on Tuesday, in the 
calends of March. Ilence, the first 
day of March has been dedicated 
to St. David, and the festival is 
kept to the present day. 

' The reverence in which St. 

10 lOLO GOCH. 

A gladcler, di-ofer yw, 
Ym monwent Dewi Mynyw. 
Ni sang cythraul brychaulyd 
Ar ei dir byth, er da 'r byd. 
91. Hyder a wnaeth canhiadu 
Gras da y Garawys du ; 
I Frytaniaid, Frut wyneb,^ 
Y gwnaed rhad yn anad neb. 

Pe bai mewn llyfr o'r j)abir,^ 
Peunydd mal ar haf-ddydd hir, 
Nottri Pcòlig^ un natur, 
A phin a du a phen dur,^ 
Yu ysgrifenu, bu budd,^ 
Ei fuchedd ef o'i achudd,* 
101. Odid fyth, er daed fai 
Ennyd yr ysgrifenai 
Dridiau a blwyddyn drwydolP 
A wnaeth ef o wyniaeth olL 

David was held may be gleaned lic', ' a ready writer'. Nottri 

from what the bard here says— and Pheblig. — MS. 

he was doubtless but echoing the ^ ^ pJien dur ; au enthusiast 

sentiments of the country — of the would regard this as a prophecy of 

sacredness of the ground where the the steel pen. 

good man was buried — no evil ^ Bu hudd^ 'a being of good or 

spirit ever daring to visit or ap- advantage'; or itmaybetheverb Jîí. 

proach the place. ■• Acîiudd, 'cloister'; thatis, from 

^ Frut icìjneb, ' having the fea- the time that St. ravid appeared 

tures of Brutus'. in public to take command in the 

^ Pabir, 'papyrus'. Church. 

I Nottri Peblig, ' A notary pub- ^ ggg g^_ John xxi, 25, 





Duw, lor^ y duwiau eraill, 
Dofydd a Lly wydd y llaill ; 
Dawn^ llawn — Duw yw ^n Uawenydd — 
Duw a weddîwn bob dydd. 
Dawn^ yw gweddio Duw Xaf, 
Duw byth, nis diobeithiaf ! 
Heb Dduw ym' dysg, heb ddim dawn ; 
A Duw agwrdd,* a digawn . ^ 
Mwyaf yw pwys fy mywyd,*^ 
Ar Dduw byth, nag ar dda 'r byd. 

' This poem is given as tran- 
scribed by Rhys Jones, of Tyddyn 
Älawr, Meirion, in his celebrated 
•work, Gorchestion Beîrdd Cyìnru. 
"We have taken the liberty, how- 
ever, of amending the text, where 
we found it mauifestly incorrect. 
Rhys Jones was a poet and a no 
mean scholar ; we consequently 
defer to his judgment on many 
points ; but his book was printed 
in London, and bears evident marks 
of having passed through an Eng- 
lish compositor's hands. 

2 lor, ' Lord', ' Prince'. 

* Daicn. In the third line this 
term is used in its first intentiou, 
signifying, ' a gift', ' a present' ; 
but in the fifth, it means ' a gift 
by way of abiHty to accomplish 
any mental function with effect'; 

as Dcarn llefaru., ' the gift of elo- 
quence'; dawn gweddio^ 'the gift of 

* Agwrdd, 'potent', 'powerful'. 

' These two lines, it will be seen, 
are the Bard's poetical version of 
the well-kuown old proverb : — 

" Heb Dduw, heb ddim ; 
Duw a digon." 

« ' The weight of my life', that 
is, my dependence, ' is ever upon 
God, not on the good things of 
the world'. There is a rough kind 
of devotion to be f ound throughout 
the whole of the Bard's composi- 
tions. According to the light of 
his day and the peciüiar tenets of 
his Church, he is by uo means 
deficient iu religious knowledge. A 
glance at his Cijffes lolo will prove 



Eliodd yw, rliai addewynt, 
Rhaid yw yni' wybod ar hynt, 
Pwy ddeil gof ? pa ddelw y gwn ? 
Pa Dduw ? pwy a weddiwn ? 
Pybyr Greawdr'' pob hoywbeth, 
Pob rhai l)yw, pob rhyw o beth. 
Pwy a wnaeth y nef hefyd ? 
Pob rhyw, feirw a byw, a byd ? 
Pwy sy 'n cynnal, grwndwaP grym, 
Llawr yr adail Ue 'r ydym ? 
Pwy a oedd Ddiiw ? pwy a ddaw ? 
Pwy sydd piau sy eiddaw ? 
Tri 'n y nef a gartrefan' — ^ 
Tadwys,^ Mab, Yspryd glwys Glân. 
Tri Pherson, undôn^ Unduw, 
Ag nid un, onid un Duw. 
Nid oes fry, yn eu dwys frawd, 
Ond yr ünduw a'r Drindawd. 

' Greaicdr. The orthograpliy of 
this term, whether it be that of 
the Bard or of his Editor, is much 
to be preferred to that of Greawdwr 
— the a&xf/ẃr not being applicable 
to the Godhead. 

* Gricììdwal, ' ground - wall ', 
' foundation'. lolo Goch is uot 
solitary iu the use of the word. 
Lewis Glyn Cothi writes : — 

"Daw o rwndwal lorwerth 
Drwyudwn ;" 

and Dr. John Davies also has, 
" Grwudwal pob iaith", ' the basis 
of every language'. The bards, 
both of this and the two suc- 
ceeding centuries, ofteu introduce 
Cymricised forms of English 
words. This has been avoided 

in the last and present cen- 

^ Whatever were the errors into 
which the Roman Catholic Church 
had fallen, it ever held fast the 
doctrine of the Trinity. Tiie ex- 
phcit declarations the poet here 
makes are second only to those 
of the Athanasian Creed. So in- 
volved is this doctrine with that of 
the atonement, that we hail its 
presence with satisfaction in any 
Church, however erroneous in other 

' Tadwys, — from tad aud gi'cl/s. 
The abstract is here used for the 
concrete — 'fatherhood' for 'father' 
— a not unusual mode of diction 
among the poets. 

* Undôn, ' one in utterance'. 



Triudawd yr Undiiw ydynt ; 

Ag un Duw — gogoned ynt. 

Un feddiant yu eu glândy, 

Un gadernyd, un fryd fry ; 

Un fraint, un feddiaut, uu frys,^ 

Un allu, uu ewyUy.s ; 

Un dôu, uu wath,* da 'u un wedd, 

Un Duw ynn' yu y diwedd. 

Gair^ oedd yn y Goreu-dduw, 

A'r Gair a ddaeth o'r gwir Dduw. 

Gwnaethpwyd o'r Gair gwenith-bwys' 

Gnawd glân, Mab gogoned glwys ; 

Ag o ryw y Goreuair 

Y ganed Mab o guawd ]\Iair ; 
Ym Metlüem o'i fam wythlwys'' 

Y gaued ef, Fab gwyn dwj^s : 
A'i eui 'u Fab, anian fwyn, 
O'r wyryf Fair, wir forwyu. 

•^ Frijs, ' readiness', ' quickness', ^ Gwenith-hwys. We can but con- 

' promptitude in performance'; as jecture the poet's meaning. 'Aa 

exemplifìed iu tliat particular act Mheat-corn is pre-eminent amongst 

of creation in which " God said, all other grain, so is our Lord 

' Let there be light' ; and tliere among all other beiugs.' This use 

was light". of the term gwenith ■will be found in 

* Gwath, ' intent', ' design'— a ^^^ ^^'orks of other poets. We 

term not to be found iu Dr. Oweu liave it in the old penuiU :— 

Pughe"s Lexicon. " Blodau "r flwyddyn yw f' 

5 Gair. The poet uses this term anwylyd— 

as a narne of our Lord. He does -EbnU, Mai, Mehefiu hefyd ; 

not say Y Gair. This accords with Llewyrch haul yn t'wynu ar 

the similar use of Crist when used Sjsgod, 

wiihout the definitive article. The ^ gwenitheu y genethod." 

article, however, is used in the fol- ' Wythlwys, the ouly meauing 

lowing line in accordance with we can attach to this term is, ' Eight 

Scripture. times beautiful'. 

20 lOLO GOCH. 

Nid natui' dyn yttoedd, 

Eitlir Ddiiw medd Athrodd oedd ; 

Ag o radd y Goreudduw 

A'r Ysbryd Glân buan, byw. 

Graddau y Mab goreuddoeth 

allu Duw oll y doeth f 

Dau a gyssylltwyd mewn dawn, 

Duw a dyn, diwyd uniawn. 

Duw yn ein mysg,^ dawn a'n medd 

A dry gair, o'i drugaredd, 

I'n dwyn i nef dau ei nawdd — 

Ddofydd a ddioddefawdd.^ 

s Docih for claetTi. to its former Editor. Rhys Jones 

^ Yn ein mysg^ ' Imraanuel, God was a careful transcriber, as is 

■with us'. manifest from the text he has here 

• This poem has, comparatively, giveu of this poem of lolo Goch. 

few difficulties. We are iuclined We sliall see more of this care iu 

to ascribe this in a great measure tlie poem that follows. 




Yr un bai ar ein bywyd 
Ar bawb, a hudol yw ^r byd ; 
Hud ar ddyn, hyder ar dda, 
Hudol anneddfoP noddfa. 
Malu^ y Sul, melus son, 
Marwol bechodau niawriou ! 
Balchder yw ein arfer ni, 
Digio, cybydd-dra, diogi^ 
Cynfigen, bresen^ heb rodd,'* 
10 Godineb — gwae adwaenodd ! 
Glothineb y glwth enau, 
Nid mwyn, mi a wn nad mau ; 
Md trem fawr,^ nid trwm ei fod,*' 
Nid baich, onid o bechod. 

' Annedd/ol, 'lawless', unlawful', 
' immorar. 

2 Malu, literally ' to grind'. Its 
secondary signification here is ' to 
work out laboriously'. 

3 Bresen, a Cymricised form of 
tlie Englisli word ' present'. The 
term seems to have been introduced 
into our language at an early date. 
Taliesin has : — " Nid aeth neb i 
nef er benthyg y bresen:" 'No one 
has gone to heaveu for the lend- 
ing of his present'. Presen, the 
root of presennoldeb, is the same 
word ; but in the former meauing 
of ' a present', it has come to us 
through the English. 

* Heh rodd, ' a bootless or un- 
availing gift'. 

* Trem faicr, ' lofty look', ' the 
look of pride'. 

^ Trwm ei fod, ' burdensome his 

Älany of the poet's lines are 
"dark sayings"; and we must 
attribute to the exigencies of cyn- 
(jTianedd much of the difficulty that 
attends their wordiug. lolo Goch, 
however, is uot so wedded to the 
former as ou all occasious to sacri- 
fice sense to it. In the poem be- 
fore us he violates the bardic rules 
by twyll odl. 

' Naw pwys ryfcl, In the spiritual 

22 lOLO GOCH. 

Naw pwys ryfeF ein gelyn 

Yw 'r naw pwys, a ŵyr neb hyn ? 

Dêl i'w cof adail a'u cudd, 

Dioddefaint Duw Ddofydd. 

Duw i'r liawl, a da yw rlio'm 

A drwsiodd Mab Mair drosom ; 

Mawr gur a gafas, mawr gŵ}Ti, 

Mawr farw un Mab Mair forwyn ! 

A'i boen — ar Wener y bu — 

Ar un pren er ein prynu. 

I nef yr aeth yn ufydd 

At y Tad deugeinfed dydd ; 

Yn Dad, yn Fab, Bab y^ byd, 

Yn oesbrafí7 glân yn Ysbryd -^ 

Yn un nifer hynafiaeth, 

Ag yn un gnawd, gwn i'n gwnaeth.- 

Duw 'n cyfoeth,^ dawn a'n cyfyd 

Y dydd y bo diwedd byd. 

Dydd a bair ofn fydd dydd brawd, 

Dydd tri-llu,^ diwedd trallawd. 

■\varfare the soldier is weighed down of the Godhead. He is Father, 

by the uine besetting sins the poet Son, and Holy Spirit. 

has just enumerated, — worldliuess, 2 There is much difficulty in 

Sabbath-breakiug, pride, hatred, these Hnes. The solution proba- 

covetousness, idleness, envy, adul- bly is : ' He made us partakers of 

tery, aud gluttony. his eternity and of his mauhood.' 

8 Bah y hjd. The poet's loyalty ^'" gu-naeth. ' Ein gwnaeth.' 

to his spiritual Head is shown by * ^* must be remembered that 

his applying the name 'Pope' to the poet is speaking altogether of 

the Saviour. Christ. As the Sox of Max he is 

^ Oeshraff., ' of prolonged or our wealth, and the one who will 

ample life'. raise us up at the last day. 

^ This and the previous line con- ^ Trillu. Gorouwy Owen's lines 

firm the orthodoxy of the poefs ^^ Cyicydd y Farn will explain the 

Yiews regarding the Trinity. Our "se of this term. 

Lord ascends into heaven, aud ap- " Try allan ddynion tri-llu, 

pears there the only representatire Y sydd, y fydd, ac a f u." 



Diau fydd, drwg a da fo, 

Ufudd iawn a fydd yno ; 

A'r dyfyn^ a'r wŷr Dofydd, 

A fu, ac etto a fydd : 

Yn rhawor i'n rhvwoí;aeth 

Y nef a'r bresen a w^naeth. 

Pum archoll'^ i'u arfoU ni, 

Pum aelod y pum weli ; 

A'n rhoi yn iach, ein rhan oedd, 

Wnai Siesws'' yn oes oesoedd. 

Bid yn wtos,^ bod yn rasol, 

Bid yn nef, bod yn ei ol. 

Er ei gof hir a gyfyd 

Er ei loes dros bumoes^ 1iyd ; 

Er ei lun a'r oleuni^ 

Er a wnaeth a'i roi i ni, 

Er ei wyneb ar Wener,^ 

Er ei boen fawr ar y ber,^ 

® Dìjfyn, ' summons'. 

* Piiìíi archoll. In the Saviour's 
hands, feet, and side. Roman 
CathoHcs are careful iii the enu- 
meration cf the acts and incidents 
of our Lord's life, and especially of 
those of the Crucifixion. 

^' Siesics, 'Jesus'. 

* Bld yn icres. The meaning 
of the poet probably is : ' Be it 
our warm object to obtain his 
grace ; be it our heaven to follow 

^ Bttmoes. See page 10, note 6. 
Dafydd Benfras also uses the term 
in the same meauing : — 

" Achaws pumoes byd y bu 
Uchelwr mirain, bêr draiu 

' For the sake of the five ages of 
the world, glorious lofty Oue, 
spikes of thorn pierced him.' 

1 A^r oleuni. It is impossible to 
extract sense out of this expres- 
sion. Were the text amended with 
some such word as aiu\ making 
aur oleuni, it would be intelli- 

* Er ei tcyneb ar Wener, The 
agony, doubtless, imprinted on his 
face on the day of his crucifixiou. 

' Bêr, literally ' spit' ; here used 
for the cross. 

* Gìcedd. So various are the 
meanings of this word, that it is 
scarcely possible to make sure of 
the poet's drift. Sometimes ' couu- 
tenance', sometiraes ' connexion', 
aud ofteutimes ' team' or ' yoke'; 

2^ lOLO GOCH. 

I'r un gwedd,^ er eiu gweddi, 

Y nef a brynodd i ni. 

Y marw ni ŵyr ymorol 

Am y wnaetli ; y mae yn ol ; 
Nid edwyn, yn nodedig, 
Na 'i phlaid trwm^ na ph'le y trig. 
M ch}Traedd yn iach arian, 
Nid oes ond a roes o ran,'' 
Llaswyr'^ Fair yn llaw lesu, 
Lle fydd erbyn y dydd du ; 
Unpryd Wener offeren^ 
O'n dig byth a'n dwg i ben ; 
A'm gwlad fyth a'm golud fo 
I'w 'mgeledd, Duw a'm galwo ! 
Doed y Gair, deued i gof, 
Trwsiad o law Dduw trosof ; 
Er ei fedd, a'i chwerwedd chwŷs, 
A'r anfad farn,^ a'r enfys,^ 
Un doeth rwysg,^ Un Duw a Thri, 
Un Duw dêl i'n didoli. 

vfe shali in this instauce leave our ' Psalter', although he makes uo 

readers to choose their own mean- mention of this signifìcation. The 

ing. poet may have been (]riven by the 

^ Na 'i phlaid trwm. The poet's exigencies of the cymjhauedd to use 

meaning is again a matter of cou- the peculiar form here given. 

siderable doubt. It is probable « tt- ^ rr.i t-. • i . 

.,;, ^ ^ ^ Tlewer offeren. The Friday s 

that Khys Jonesgave the best text n, ,1. t i- , t •■ 

, . •' f , . JMass — the day on which our Lord 

m his power, thoua-h sometimes .^, -, 

, . ,,..,, ,. ,^ was crucmed. 
scarcely intelngible to himself. 

« The same remarfcs apply to ' -'^''' ""^^«'^ ■^«'■"' ' *^« ^°- 

this and the previous line also. "gliteous judgment of Pontius 

- Lhmrur Fair. Owen Puglie ^ ^'^^^- 

trauslates the former word, ' an ' -'^'^ enfys, 'the halo' around 

aërial f reshness' ; iu that case, it t^ie Saviour's countenance. 

wculdapply toMary"scouutenance. ^ TJn doeih rwysg, ' one whose 

But we apprehend that the term is uniform career was wise': literally, 

a corrupted form of Sallwyr, ' oue of wise career'. 



Myeye wyf yn ymofyn, 
Dduw, betli orau i ddyn : 
Ei eni er Uenwi llid, 
Naws gwywnoeth,^ ai nis genid, 
Wrth ddeallt araitli ddiwyd 
bregeth ? neu beth y w 'r byd ? 
Pur olaf, pa ryw eilyn ? 
Diana 'r^ ddaear yw dyn. 
I^r farn, pan fo gadarnaf, 
O'i lys rhydd^ a^i les yr â. 
Angau a ddaw, distaw don,* 
IV ddwyn o fysg ei ddynion. 
Gado 'r wlad i gyd a'r wledcl, 
A'i farw, er niaint ei fawredd ; 
Ehyw gyfle, rhew gafaeloer,^ 
Ehaw a chaib a wuai rych oer f 
Ac yno, yn ol dolef, 
"Ber yw 'r oes", y bwrir ef; 

' Girywnoeth. Gwyw, gwyico, ' to ^ Gafaelocr ; an allusion to ' tlie 

wither'. cold grasp of death'. 

2 Diana. The text of this poem ^ The term rhjch is a favourite 

is very inaccurate. What the poet expression with the Welsh when 

means we cau but conjecture. spcating of the grave. It poiuts 

2 BJiydd, in opposition to the to the resurrection. As the seed- 

grave, where man may be said to corn is tlirown into the fur- 

be bound and f ettered. row in anticipation of a future 

* Distaw don. A highly poetical harvest ; so our bodies are, as it 

espression, whence many a simile were, planted in the furrow of the 

may be extracted. grave to await the resurrection. 


26 lOLO GOCH. 

A'i gladdu dan graian gro, 
Ner addwyn ! a wnair iddo ;• 
A'i genedl, a'i ddigoniant, 
A'i arfau, oedd gynnau gant. 
Os gwirion sy o gariad^ 
Oes dira ond lesu a'i Dad. 
Gwae neb o'r cwbl a fegyd 
Byth ymddirietto i'r "byd ! 
Gwae a goUo naw-bro^ Ner, 
Duw nef, er doniau^ ofer ! 
Gwae ^n enw Uid, a wnel llys 
Fry 'n ol i'r fro annilys !^ 
Gwae a gred^ 

Ddim mwy ond i Dduw mawr ! 
Y gŵr a ddichon i gyd, 

Fair wyryf, fawr wryd.^ 
Gostwng y gwynt, hynt hynod, 
A phaidio, pan fynno fod. 

Nid credu, haenu^ henaint, 

1 goelau, swynoglau''"' saint ; 

1 These two lines are manifestly Museum does not even give the 

corrupt. eudiug of this liue. 

„ ,T 7 rrii j-i „ „„ ^ Wriid, ' mauhood'. As we 

8 Naic-hro. These are the man- -' ' 

sionsof theA^mr-mẃ/,ortheuine ^^^^ elsewhere stated, however 

grades or rauks of the heavenly erroneous the creed of the bard 

, . , may have beeu respecting other 

hierarchy. ■' »,.»., , ,. 

tenets of his faith, the doctriue of 

9 Donìau literally 'gifts'; here ,, „, • ., , • • ,. 

•' * the Iriuity, and, m conjunction 

probably ' pleasures are meant. ^^.^^^ .^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ manhood of the 

■ Ännilys, ' uucertaiu'. Can the j^^^^ j^.gyg^ stands out in bold re- 

bard, in the use of this term, refer jjgf throughout his works. The 

to Purgatory ? That such an in- .^^^.^ ^^^ ^f ^g^y God' is also very 

terraediate state lay within the ni^n of verv man. 

scope of his creed we caunot , ^/„^.„„ henaint, ' To the be- 

^"^'^*- smearing of old age'. 

The MS. copy in the British s ,S'«'^?iO(/Za?í, 'amulets', 'charms'. 



Neu gredau i'r niyrriau, maeth 
I freucldwyd gwracli afrwyddiaeth ; 
Neu gredu ymhi amlwg*^ 
I lais y dry w annlles drwg ; 
Neu lais y frân yn canu, 
Llef ormes luddewes ddu ! 
Na chedwn gred^ ddiognef 
I neb ond i Dduw o'r nef ; 
Duw orau, uwch daearydd,^ 
Duw lesu fu ag a fydd : 
Duw fydd o herwydd hir-oed,^ 
Difai ras, Duw fu erioed. 
Dydd brawd i geudawd^ gadarn 
Diau fydd Duw a farn. 
Duw a'n dycco, o'r diwedd, 
I'r wlad dragwyddol a'r wledd ! 
Duw draw a'n gwnel yn llawen 
Gyda Mair- i gyd ! Amen. 

• Ymlu amlwg. We confess our tiou'. Tliis term is an ancient one. 
inability to cope with tlie difficulties We read in the Mahinogion, 

of this phrase, and we fall back on " Naw ciwdawd a wledycha 

a corrupt text as our apology. Rhufain." ' There are niue uations 

' Ddwcjìujred^ 'ddwngred'.— MS. that inhabit E,ome.' 

^ Uwch daearydd, ' above the * Gyda Mair ; f aithful to Mary, 

earth's iuhabitant': that is, 'the in- the bard seems toregard the blessed- 

habitaut of a higher world'. ness of heaveu to consist in a mea- 

^ Hir-oed, ' the Ancieut of Days'. sure in the presence of its queen 

* Giwdawd, '■ tribe', ' clan', ' na- there. 

28 lOLO GOCH. 




Saint y Cait a Saint Cytus, 
Siosim lieudad Siesus ; 
Pendefig, bonheddig liael, 

Nas'retli ag yn Israel, 

Y^n dair rhan — ef ag Anna — 
Ehinwedd ddoeth^ a rannai 'dda : 
Ehoi yn hyf rhan o'i gyfoeth 

1 dŷ Dduw — pand ydoedd ddoeth ? — 
A'r ail ran, ar ol ei raid, 

Ar unwaith roe i weiniaid. 

Efallai yn hawdd felly 

drain y da drin ei dŷ.^ 

ISÍid oedd etifedd neddyn 

O'i gorph yn aberth Duw gwyn.^ 

Y gŵr oedd gorau o'r iaith,* 

O'r deml a yrrwyd ymaith, 

> It is very diíBcult to resolve Aaron, iu which the priesthood 
these uames iuto their origiual was vested. 


■« laith is here probably used for 
' natiou', or ' people'. Nations and 
hiììguages are ofteu coupled iu the 
same sense. 

forms. Cait or ' Kate', St. Catha- 
rine ; and Cytus^ ' Kit' or Christo- 
pher, are probably the persons iu- 
tended. Siosim, ' Joachim', Siesiis, 

2 drain y da. O draen y da. ' ^^^ ^^^''''^ ^^^^ g^^^^ ^^ P™" 

-MS. Da ar draen, 'goods or bably of moukish inveution. 

wealth in circulatiou'. So aiir ar ® This line also bears evident 

draen meaus ' gold spread abroad', marks of a corrupted text. 

or ' circulated'. ' Porth euraid, ' the golden gate'; 

2 Thefailureof issue was deemed probably oue of the gates of the 

a uo slight misfortuue by the tribes temple, which were ornamented 

of Israel, and especially by that of with gold and silver. 


A ddug ei ddynion a'i dda 

Wrtli hyn oddiwrtli Anna : 

Cyrcliawdd, ni ffaelawdd ei ffydd, 

I'r man uchaf o^r mynydd ;' 

Crio a wnaeth, carai nawdd, 

Ar y Creawdr y criawdd ; 

Gweddiodd am rodd o ras f 

Yn y gof hynny a gafas ; 

Duw a ddanfones i'w dad 

Deg iawn hyd atto gennad : 

" Dos di, Dywysog dy iaith, 

At Anna etto unwaith ; 

Hi a fydd blaenwydd dy blaid 

I'th aros yn y porth euraid."'^ 

Adref daeth i dref ei dad — 

Drych ef — m.v,'j fu 'r drychafiad,^ 

Bu ddawnus^ bywyd Anna, 

Beichioges y dduwies^ dda ; 

I Anna^ merch a aned 

A honno yw Mair, crair cred.^ 

Bu' Mair o'r Gair yn ddi gel 

Yn feichiog o nef uchel ; 

Mal yr haul y mclir hon 

. . . drwy wydr i'r ffynnon.** 

Yn 'r un modd, iawn-rodd anrheg, 

Y daeth Duw at fammaeth deg f 

^ This line is diíficult in the ex- ^ Crair cred. For an elucidation 

treme. It would scarcely be im- of this term, see page 1, note 1. 

proved were we to substitute, There it is applied to our Lord, 

" Drych ef mwy i'r drychafiad." here to His mother. 

ä JJdaicnus, ' gifted', * The exact transcriijt of the line 

* Dduiüies. The application of is given. We will not, however, 
the term ' goddess' to the Virgin pretend to decipher it. 

Mary proves our poet to have been ^ Famaeth deg. The poet regards 

a devoted Romau Catholic. the Yirgin as chosen for the lofty 

* Anna is regarded throughout honour conferred on her on accouut 
the poem as the mother of Mary. of her beauty. 

30 lOLO GOCH, 

Gorau mam, gorau mammaeth, 
Gorau i nef y Gŵr wnaeth. 
Cyflawn oedd, cyflawn addwyn, 
TreF i Dduw, tra fu i'w ddwyn. 
Angylion gwynion yw 'r gwŷr, 
Oedd i Wen'' ymddiddanwyr.*^ 
Wrth raid mawr, er athrodion, 
Y ganed Duw o gnawd hon. 
Hon a fagawdd o'i bronnau, 
Hynaws mawl yr hanes mau.^ 
Baich ar ei braich ei Brawd 
A'i baich a'n dwg o bechawd.^ 
Ei Thad oedd yn y gadair, 
A'i Mab oedd yn hŷn na Mair.^ 
Mair a wnel, rhag y gelyn, 
Ymbil â Duw am blaid dyn ; 
Ar ein Duw^ Ef a wrendy 
Neges y Frenhines fry. 
chawn ni 'n rhan drwy Anna, 
Mwy fydd ein deunydd* a'n da. 

® Tre/i Z>(/?«r, 'theabode of the Virgm bore on her arm, was her 

godhead'. Tref is here used iu its brother ; and that burden relieves 

íirst intention— ' a home'. us from the burden of siu,' is the 

^ Wen^ ' white'; hence, ' holy', poet's meaning. 

'sinless'. .- ,,..,, 

o ^. ^ , , • , ,, ^ rJor are these hnes less beauti- 

"^ üu-cumstances belonging to the „ , , tt t- ., 

,.£ P T 1 ì. ■ íul- Her Father was on the 

liie 01 our Lord are ofteu intro- ^, , , o 

j j • X XI ^ r ., -tr- • , throne : and her Son was older 

duced mto that of the Virgm. As ^, , . , , 

. ^, . ,, , ° , tnan his mother. 

m the agony in the garden, angels 

came to uphold and comfort Jesus, ' ^''^^^^^ °^ *^^ ^^^ '^^^ ^^^' 

so in this hour of her need, when '^ ' 

slanderous tongues were busy, they ' ^"^ ^"^ '^ ^"^ ^^ ^ wrendy'. 

are said to have come and com- Dmu^ ' Christ'. 

forted Mary. ^/, ' the Father'. 

^ ' The subject of my narrative'. * Dtumjdd for defìiijdd. The 

' This and the former line are concrete is here used for the ab- 

truly poetical. ' The burden the str&ct—defuyddioldeb. 


VI í. 

Daioni Duw~ a aned 
Fair wyryf,^ grair arf i gred ; 
Ferch lohasym, fab grym gra, 
Pan torrwr pan pant ira f 
Fab Pante f fab Pwynt eirior ; 
Fab Elsi ; fab Eli bor ; 
Fab Mattham digam degwch ; 
Fab loseb fíel ateb fflwch ; 
Fab Mathari, gloywri glân, 
Digaeth fab Amos degan f 
Nefawl fab Näwn afudd ; 
Fab Eli ; fab Naggi nudd ;^ 
Fab Maath ; fab Mathathei, 
symaeth mydr fab Semei ; 
Fab loseb, fab wynebloy w ; 
Fa Siwda ; fab lohanna loyw ; 

* This poem is at best but a lite- * These lines are manifestly cor- 

rary freak. The bard could scarcely rupt ; and no emendation can now 

have imagined a wilder thought be suggested which would give the 

than that of weaving into cyug- meaning of the bard. 

Tianedd the uncouth Jewish names ^ It is impossible to account for 

that form the pedigree of our Lord. Ihese names. They do not appear 

Still lolo Goch's Works must be in the geuealogies either of Mat- 

complete. thew or Luke. There is a hiatus 

2 Diaoni Dnw, ' Christ'. also in the bard's list — some im- 

ä Wijryf. If this term were portant names being left out. 

altered to wÿr/, ' pure', 'fresh', and 6 These lines are clearly cor- 

applied as an epithet to Mary, the rupt. 

line would be reduced to its proper "^ Nudd. Nudd Hael ab Seisyllt 

number of feet. There is no doubt was one of the three generous ones 

but this was the original reading. of the Isle of Britain. Hence 

32 lOLO GOCH. 

Fab Resa; fab oreuserch 
Sorobabel, siweP serch ; 
Fab Salathiel, bu sel saut ; 
Moddus fab Ner, meddant ; 
Fab hoyw Elmodam ; fab Er ; 
Luniaidd fab lesu loywner ; 
Fab Elieser ; fab Sioram ; 
Bu hoíf fab Matthat ba ham f 
Fab Liw ;^ fab Simeon wiwiaith, 
Baun^ rhyw fab luda ben rhaith : 
Fab loseb, wiw wynebwr ; 
Fab lona — wel dyna wr '^ 
Fab Eliassym^ rym rwymiaith ; 
Fab Melea ; fab Mena maith ; 
Fab Mattatha, âch wrda chwyrn ;* 
Diog fab Nathan dëyrn ; 
Fab Dafydd frenin, gwin gwŷdd, 
Broffwyd; fab lesse broffwydd; 
Fab Obeth, difeth ei dôn, 
Salmwr ; fab Bos ; fab Salmon ; 
Fab Nason, wron arab, 
Da bwyU ; fab Aminadâb ; 

Nudd is used as a term to signify j^aun^ ' a peacock', as an emblem of 

anyoneof generousbloodanddeeds. a chieftain or prince occurs in 

* Siìcel. Our lexicogTapbers take most of tbe Cymric jDoets. Tbis 

no cognizanceof tbisterm. Webave beautiful bird, witb its ricb, ele- 

already mentioned tbat Engbsb gant plumage is not an inappro- 

words were f requently Cymricised priate represeutative of royalty and 

by tbe poets of tbis and tbe two suc- its trappings. Englisb poets, bow- 

ceediug centuries. Siwel is doubt- ever, regard it in a different ligbt. 

less ' jewel'. Witb tbem it is an emblem of wbat 

ä Names are again passed by. is gaudy and ijreteutious. 

Probably tbe bard was unable to ^ Tbe poet seems to be in a great 

weave tbem into bis verse. strait bere to meet tbe deiuauds of 

' Liw, ' Levi'. bis cyngJianedd. 

^ Paun. Tbe frequeut use of * ' Of tbe stem of an active hero'. 



Fab Aroin ; liii Esroiu les ; 
pliery gwir, fab Pliares ; 
Tab luda ; fab ni wna nag 
Eisoes lacob ; fab Isag ; 
Fab Abram, bab o rym bwyll f 
Fab Thare, deidie'^ didwyll; 
Fab Naclior, fab clodfor^ clau ; 
EliugP fab Saruch ; fab Rhagau ; 
Fab Phaleg, diofeg dwyll f 
Heber íiib Sale hoywbwyll ; 
Fab Cainan, wrdran^ eurdrem ; 
Fab syw Arphacsad ; fab Sem ; 
Fab No hen i^ lên a'i liw, 
A adeiliodd rhag diliw ; 
Fab Lameth, fab difeth drem ; 
A'i sel, fab Methusalem ; 
Fab Enog, fwya 'i bennwn ; 
Fab lareth, heleth^ fu hwn ; 
Fab Malalel, mawl eilwaith, 
Cariad mil fu 'r eiried* maith ; 

* Bnh njm Innjìì., ' a Pope in 
strength of mind'. 

* Deidie for deidiau. 

' Clodfor for clodfawr. 

* Rlmgl., ' dexterous', ' ready'. 

^ Diofeçi dinjll. The meauing of 
the bard seems to be : — ' without 
deceit of mind'. 

i Wrdran. Whether this word 
is the offspring of a corrnpt text, 
or one that, iu the coui'se of long 
ages, has become obsolete, it is now 
difficult to say. AU we can say in 
its favour is, that it supplies the 
needs of the cipìjhaìiedd. 

Howcver cijiigìianedd may be 

disparaged, it has undoubtedly 
assisted in the prcservation of our 
language. Some vaUiable, though 
qnaiut remarks on this subject by 
Lewis Morris will be found in his 
Notes on Cijinjdd ij Farn Fairr., by 
Goronwy Owen. See London 
edition of the Works of the latter, 
Vol. i, page 37. 

2 7 is f requeutly used by the old 
bards for ei. 

■■' Heleth for helaeth. 

* Ciried, ' beneficence', ' kind- 

^ Ddirjfan ddifeth. The name 
Cainan occurs twice in the genea- 

34 lOLO GOCH. 

Fal) Cainan, ddwyfan"^ ddifeth, 
Oes liir ; fab Enos ; fab Setli ; 
Fab Addaf, gloyw eurnaf glwys, 
Priodor tir Paradwys ; 
Fab DUW ei hun, Gun gwrawl, 
Tad pybyr Fab pob rliyw fawl ;ö 
Brawd Ues i Addaf bryd llwyr, 
A'i -wrol Daid a'i Orŵyr ;^ 
Brawd i Fair ddiwair ddwywaith,^ 
A'i Thaid a'i IMab, enaid maith. 
Brawd i bob Cristion o brudd 
Du dwyfawl,^ a'i Dad ufudd. 
hil Addaf, hylwydd-ior, 
Yr ŷm yn geraint i'r lor. 
Arglwydd uwch law arglwyddi 
nef yw 'n Pencenedl ni.^ 
Gwelais faint graen^ a galar 
A oedd gaeth Adda i'w gâr. 
Cymmerth ar groes dromloes draw, 
FawT dristyd, i farw drostaw. 
Cyfodes, cyfa-^ Jtb'"^% 
Droedwyu Fab, dradwy^ yn fyw ; 

loíry. Thc elder Cainan lived to ^ hrmld chi dwyfairì. Can 

the age of 910 years ; hence the the bard mean to identify religion 

words oeíf liir. with gloom in this place ? It seems 

« Fab pob rhywfawì, 'a son de- so. 

serying of every kind of praise'. ^ Quaint though these lines may 

• lolo IMorganwg has ventured be, they are very beautiful, and 

on a note here: — " lesu Grist yn make amends for the weariness of 

Frawd i Addaf, &c." — lolo Aíorg. the geuealogy. 

8 Ddiwair ddwywaifh, ' doubly * Gracn, ' pungency', ' asperity', 

chaste'. Whether thesewords ap- ^ Cÿ/o, 'perfect'. 

ply to 'the exceeding chastity of * Dradwy, like tranììocth, has 

the Yirgin', or to ' the immaculate probably come to us through the 

conception',ourreadci-smustdeter- Latin. It is one of those words 

mine for themselves. that, while they prove the afììnity 



I ddwyn ei daid wiwddawii, dwys, 

bryder i Baradwys ; 
A'r sawl urddasol o'r saint 
Ag a rodd I)\iw, a'i geraiut. 

1 Fair 3' diolcliaf fi, 
A Duw, lon y daioni, 
Am fagu lesu oesir, 
Bronwyn Guu, Brenin y gwir ; 
A brynawdd â gwaed breininwl 
I deulu fc) ; dylai fawl/ 

of the Latin aiid the Celtic iii tht'ir 
source, show that the seyercd 
streams have at some period beeii 
agaiu partially re-united. While 
the etymons of trannoetli and trad- 
icy are purely Celtic — trairí< nos 
and trairs dijdd — their forms are 
more easily derived from the Latin 
tran< nocfciii and trans dicni. espe- 

cially when we bear in mind that 
the ct of the Latin makes tìi in the 

* While the poet's meaning iu 
this line is tolerably clear, its ex- 
pression, to say theleast, is clumsy. 
Tlie poem, hoNvever, as a wliole, is 
less burdened with difficulties thau 
most of lolo Goch's effusious. 

36 lOLO GOCH. 

VI lí. 

Dduw, am yr liyn oedcl dda 
I ddyn, pawb a'i hadduna ; 
I wneiithur Awdur ydwyd^ 
Tra fai a minnau tra fwyd ; 
Gwir-ddal y ff'ydd a gerddodd 
Gatholig, fonheddig fodd ; 
A bod, gwae ef oni bydd 
Gair ofn, yn gywir ufydd. 
Oed bydd o bob rhith i l)en, 
Oreu ffair,^ yw ^r Ofíereu. 
Dechreu mau godych-wrych.-'^ 
lawn waith yw cyfí'esu 'n wych. 
Off'eren dan nen i ni, 
Air da iawn, yw 'r daioni ; 
A'i hojfis aml ddewiso"* 
I bawb o'r deunydd y bo ; 
Ai o'r Drindawd ddoethwawd ddwyn, 
Ai Fair, wirion Eorwyn ; 

' With a text unintelligible in * Ffair, 'market', ' fair'. Here 

some parts of the poem, it is still it must be taken in the seuse of 

impossible to exchide an effusion ' profit'. 

of lolo Goch that contains such ^ The third, fourth, ninth, and 

distinctive characteristics of his this line are so corrupt as not 

faith as tlie present. In Roman to be deciphered in the present 

Catholic worship the sacnfice of day. 

the Masít (Offeren) holds the most ■» HoJJìs^ ' office', or Koman Ca- 

prominent phice. tholic ' Service'. There are the 

Ydwj^f. MS. — rhyming with Oífices of ' the Trinity', of ' the 

Jwi/fia thc next line. Yirgin', and others. 


Ai o'r Yspryd, glendyd glân : 

A'i o'r dydd'' mae air diddan ; 

Ai o'r Grog oediog ydiw ; 

Mawr yw'r gwyrth, ai o'r meirw gwiw ; 

Ai o lafer,*^ rhwydd-der rhad, 

Modd arall, meddai iiriad.''' 

Llawer ar yr Offeren 

Ehinwedd, medd Mair ddiwair wen : 

I)yn wrthi Duw a'i nertho ; 

Ni hena, ni fwygla^ fo. 

A gyrch, drwy orhoíf goífa, 

Olferen, daw i ben da. 

Angel da a fydd yngod,^ 

Yn rhifo, cludeirio^ clod, 

Pob cam, mydr"^ ddi ddammeg, 

O'i dŷ hyd ei Eglwys deg. 

Os marw, chwedl garw i gyd, 

O'i sefyll yn ddisyfyd f 

Os cyfraith, loywfaith heb lid, 

Dduw yn ol dda a wnelid, 

Annodd i arglwydd yna 

Ddwyn un geiniogwerth o'i dda. 

Y bara Offeren ennyd,* 

Da fu 'r gost, a'r dwfr i gyd. 

A'n pair^ cyspell** yw felly 

\"n gymmunol freiniol fry. 

* Dyd'l, the office of ' the day', • Cludeirio, ' to heap up', ' to 

such as saints' days. gather togetlier', 

" Lafcr, ' laver', the baptismal * ^l'jdr, ' a nietre' in poetry. 

fout. One MS. has /««•fr. Here, perhaps, it represents 'a 

^ Uriad, 'elder', and probably a saying'. 

corruption of heiiurìad. ^ Y» ddisyfi/d, ' suddenly', as iu 

» Nifwygla; ' he wiU not grow our Litany. 

luke\varni'. ■• OJfcr<ìi ennyd ; the form is 

ä r«f/of/, '/«.;•<((",' closc by'. properly y/íÿí/. r>ul ymjd, '• ührow 

3.8 lOLO GOCH. 

Fe wuai r Oftëreu — Fair fwyn— 
O ddwfr gorph ei ]\Iab addfwyu. 

waith Prelad a'i Ladin, 
A'i waed beudigaid o wiu ; 
Teiriaith hybarch ddiwarchae 
Ym mewn Offeren y mae : 

Y Ladiny berffaith loywdeg, 

Y Gryio, Ehryio, a Ch^öeg? 
Ehaid yw tân wrth ei chanu ; 
Pilio Duw dilwfr a dwfr du. 
Mi awu pam ond damunaw, 

Y mae 'u rhaid tâu^ cwyraid caw.^ 
Wybren oedd ar gyhoedd gynt 

1 dduo byd a ddeuynt ; 
Ehaid yw felly gwedy gwad 
Arglywais^ gael goleuad ; 
Llyma 'r modd pam y rhoddir, 
Da frawd, yu y gwiu dwfr ir : 
Dwfr frou íesu wiwsain, 

A ddoeth gyda ^i waed oedd ddaiu. 

Sunday'; Mawrth t/ìiyil, ' Shrûve line : — "Y luae ynia ryw wall 

Tuesday'. luawr neu auwybodaeth." 

5 PrtíV, 'acauldron'. Noanioiiut ^ ^""7 liere in the seuse of 

of search has euabled us to eluci- ' hght . 

date the poet's raeaning. " Cici)ntkl caic. The term caw 

« Cyspell, 'propinquity, « com " i^ used for so many purposes that 

pactness'. '''^ "^'^^ ''^* ^^^^ ^^ ^™P^«y ^^- i" 

,, , , , conjunction with cwiiraid, as de- 

' It would almost appear that, ^. ^ i- 1 , ' 

, . , ■'^. , , ' uoting ' wax lights . 

instead of three, as mentioned l)y , , , • r,., -,-m ^ 

, ,- , Argyhrais. Ihe difficulty of 

the poet, four Janguages are íound ^, . ,. . , ^ 

, ' , , ?' ^, , t">s hne is great. Some emenda- 

in the Mass ; but J hriiw and ,. . ,, , , .„ , 

-,. • tiou of the o/nghaiìedü wúl be : — 

Gröeg are the same. W e susjject ' ' 

that the exigencies of his cynijh. Arglywais gair goleuad. 

aiuihl demanded the duplicatiou: But a better \vay of meetiug the 

lülo Morganwg has a note on this difficulty will. ^jcrliaps, be to re- 



Pa ham y codir wir waitli 
I fj'nii niodd fau fwyniaitli. 
Yni nibob Ue, pan ddarllëer 
FyngiaP pwyll Efengyl pêr ? 
Er ein bod yn barod berwyl 
I ymladd ryw radd yr wyl, 
A'r neb diwyneb uniawn. 
A ffalsai nill na'? a wnawn. 
Pell i rym, pan nid pwyll raid, 
Pen dewin, pan y dywaid 
Yr oífeiriad ei hader,^ 
Yn ol d}T.xba corpb ein Ner,^ 
Er dysgu a fíynnu 'r fí"ydd 
Ini efo yn ufydd. 
Aro pam yr ai eraiU 
O'r Ihi i 'Eengyl i'r UaiU, 
Yn ol Agnus ni rusia 
Dei, Cytolus^ Deus da. 
Arwydd tangnefedd eirian, 
A maddeu, mwygl eiriau mân. 
Ucha ystâd, nis gwad gwŷr, 
Ar y Pab, eiriau pybyr, 
EiUio tröeU' weUweU wiw 
Ar ei siad, eres ydiw. 

gard the verb argbjwais, ' I have 
heard', as parenthetical. 
2 Fyngial^ ' a muttering'. 

* Nill nai. There is no deciph- 
ering of these words. 

* Bader. The term is taken 
from the Latin ' Pater' at the 
commencement of the Lord's 

' The elevation of the Host. the 
bard tells us, is for our teaching 

and the strengthening of our faitli. 

« Ctjtohis, 'Catholic' Hterally. 
It is here used for ' the CathoHc 

■ Eillio troell. The poet refers 
to the ' tonsure'. Roman Catliolic 
priests of certain orders have a 
round patch shaven on the crown 
of the head. This the bard calls 
here ' a wheel'. 

* Wijllì rìjm meddygìniaeth. Tlie 



son am Lêr Offeren, 
Pur ei bwyll an pair i ben ; 
Wyth rym mecldyginiaeth^ raid 
Yw ar unwaith i'r enaid,^ 
Arwydd-der a gwarder gwiw, 
Gywir fîawd, i'r corph ydiw.^ 

determinate number is nsed for an 
nndetermiuate or multitudiuous 

* ThÉ! Sacrifice of the Mass, he 
considers as a medicine for internal 
and external eyils — a healing both 
of body and soul. 

' A re-examination of the poem, 
even after the pains that have been 
taken with it, is in no way satis- 
factory. Errors of transcriptiou, 
added to the use of obsolete terms, 
reuder the work of deciphering the 
poet's meaning more thau usually 
difficult. It may be asked, Why 

deal with such poems? Would it 
iiot be wiser to allow theni, like the 
crumbling ruins of our old Welsh 
castles, to perish altogether, seeing 
that they are beyond restoration ? 
We reply, îso. They still retaiu 
gems of thought of an exquisite 
kiud for the poet. They present 
interesting ground into which the 
philologist may dig and delve. 
And they contain iiivaluable frag- 
ments of undeveloped history. 
We would not for these reasons, 
leaving others unmentioned, discard 
oue of them. 




Maiiî edrycli arnaf, ymerodres ; 
Morwyn bennaf wyd, Mair unbennes, 
Mair diornair,! Mair dëyrnes, 
Mair oleudrem, Mair ly wodres ; 
Miserere mei^ moes eryres ; 
Prydlyfr^ gweryddon^ wyt a'u priodles, 
A ffenestr wydrin nef a'i phennes, 
A mam i Dduw yn ymorddiwes,^ 
A nei'th un-brawd, briffawd'^ broffes, 
A chwaer i'th un-mab wyd a chares ; 
Ys agos o beth, dywysoges, 
Y deiryd dy Fab yt nid eres. 
Ysta'' dorllwyth fu ystad iarUes, 
Y' enaid yw 'r augel a anfones 
Yr Ysprýd attad, gennad gynnes, 
Efo a chwegaii'^ a'th feichioges ; 

• Diornair^ literally ' unchal- ^ Pryd-lyfì\ ' a book f or medita- 

lenging'. May not the term be an tion', ' a mirror for virgins, for 

allusion to the Virgiu's meek ac- example or pattern'. 

quiescence in the high houour, * Gwenjddon, ' maidens', or ra- 

with its accompanying trials, ther ' TÌrgins'. 

■which God conferred upon her? ^ Yii ymorddiwes, ' advancing 

Diornair may here, also, signify thyself to an equality'. 

' irreproachable ' ; without re- "£;■///««•(/,' highest happiness'. 

proach in her apparently dubious '^ Ysta; ys and í/a, a common 

position. compouud in the old poets. 

"^ ' Have mercy on me', a sen- * Clnccgair. These were pro- 

tence in frequent use in Roman bably the words of the ' saluta- 

Catholic prayer books. tion'. 


42 lOLO GOCH. 

Buw o fewn aeth yn dy fynwes, 
Mal yr â drwy 'r gwydr y terydr^ tes 
Megis bagad^ o rad rhodres. 
Tair cneuen wisgi tri y tröes : 
Yn Dad trwy gariad y rhagores, 
Yn Fab rhwydd arab, araf cynnes, 
Yn Yspryd gleinyd^ Glân ymddiwes.^ 
Gwedi geni ei Mab gwyn y digones 
Diareb rhwydd a dieres : 
" Heb groen yn esgor Por perffeithles, 
Heb friw o'i arwain, nef briores f 
Heb ddim godineb i neb o nes, 
Neu ogan awr nid oes neges," 
Ef a orug nef, faerdref feurdres ; 
Ef a orug uffern, nef gair cyíîes ; 
Seren grou gyson ymddangoses 
I^r tri brenin gwyn, hyn fu ^r hanes, 
I ddwyn rhwydd gyílwyn^ yt rhag afles, 
Aur, thus, a myrr, ni syrr^ Santes. 
Sioseb o'r preseb, gwir fu 'r proífes, 
Cof ydyw cennyf^ a^i cyfodes. 
leuan Fedyddiwr, gŵr a'n gwares, 
Tad bedydd dibech, trech y tröes 
Yn nwfr Eurdonnen ;^ yno y nofies. 
Cref y megaist Ef, megis Dwyfes,^ 

^ Terydr, ' swift', 'raijid', ' ar- ^ Syr r for sorra, from sorri, 'to 

dent'. displease' or ' offend'. 

' Bagad o rad rhodrcs, ' a mul- ' Eurdonncn. The conversion 

titude of exceediugly beautiful into thia beautiful word of the 

gif ts'. name Jordan, is a happy effort of 

2 Glehiyd, ' hallowiug'. the bard. He makes it ' the gol- 

^ Ynìddhces, ' she produced'. den rippled'. 

^ Briores, ' prioress'. ^ Dicijfes, ' goddess", from the 

" Gì/Jíicyn, ' gift'. root dwyf, Dmc or ' God'. 


Ar dy fron hygu, Iry frenliiues, 

Oddi yno y buost, y ddewines, 

Ti a Ôoest ac Ef tua ffelesS 

I'r Aifft, rhag angraifíV a rhag ingoes. 

Rhyfedd fu 'r gallu, fawr gyfeilles, 

Ymddwyn yn forwyn, Fair f ' arglwyddes : 

Morwyn cyn ymddwyn, fwyn fanaches f 

Morwyn yn ymddwyn, gorllwyn geirlles ; 

Morwyuaidd etto a meiriones,^ 

Byw ydwyd yn nef fal abades.^ 

Yn dy gorpholaeth, hoywgorph haules, 

Gyda 'r gŵr brawdwr a'th briodes, 

A theilwng ag iawn i'th etholes 

Iddo i'w lywio yn gywelyes.^ 

® Taa ffeles. The corrupt text ^ Meiriones, 'a superintendent', 

here reuders it impossible to getat ' one at the head', 

the right meaning. * Ahades, ' abbess' or ' superior 

• Angraiff't., ' correction', here over the heavenly host'. 
'hurt'. s Gywehjes, 'consort'. 

* Fanaches, 'nun'. 




Syr Eosier, asiir aesawr,- 
Fab Eosier^ Mortimer mawr ; 
Eosier ieuangc, planc* plymlwyd,^ 
Sarph aer o bil Syr Eaff' wycl. 

• Syr Rogeu Mortimer was 
the fourth Earl of Mareh, and 
twelfth Lord of ^Yigmore, being 
the eldest son of Edmund, the 
third Earl and eleventh Lord, who 
died at Cork in 138L Richard 11 
made him Lord Lieutenant of Ire- 
land, and in virtue of his descent 
from the r>uke of Clarence (see 
page 49, lihe 2) he was declared 
heir to the throne. His military 
service was confined entirely to 
Ireland, where he was slain. He 
was succeeded by his son Edmund, 
who died in 142.5, aged 24 years. 
With hini ended the male line of 
the Mortimers of "NN'igmore. It 
will be well to note that Roger 
Mortimer, the eightli Lord of Wig- 
more, was creatcd Earl of Marcli 
in 1328. 

- Asiir aesairr, ' the bearer of an 
azure shield'. 

2 Fah Rosier. He was the 
grandson of Rosier, or Roger, 
Mortimer. Mah here, therefore," 
must signify ' grandson', or ' de- 
scendant'. The names of Roger 
and Edmund occur alternately for 
some generations in the pedigree of 
the Mortimers of Wiguiore. 

* Planc, ' a young steed'. The 
epithet is here used to denote the 
youthful ardour and powers of the 
poet's hero. 

* PlymJiri/d, for phjmnwtjd^ say 
the lexicographers, means ' con- 
fiict'. It is congenital with, if not 
derived from, the Greek polemos 
and the Latin heìlum. 

" Sijr Ru(ì\ or Ralph Mortimer, 
flourished about the middle of the 



Eos arglwydd, Rosier eurglaei', 
Rhyswr^ cwncwerwr can caer j 
Colon^ engylion^ Engiont, 
A'i phen, cynheiliad, a'i phont ; 
Perbren^ dawn, pair- ûbry^ ^n da^ 
Por gwyn^ ìîlaguryn Buga ;* 
Edling-walch^ o deilyngw^aed, 
Eryr trin oreuraid traed f 
Arwraidd dy luniaidd law, 
Wyr burffrwytli''' ior Aberffraw.^ 
Draig ynysoedd yr eigiawn, 
Dragwn aer, darogan iawn. 

12th century. He was the first 
lord of NYigmore. The fifth lord, 
who died in 124C, bore the same 
Christian name, 

■^ Rhysior, ' champion', ' combat- 

8 Colon, for colofyn. 

^ Eììgylion. Could the bard 
have beeii conversant with the 
quaint saying of ' Non Angli, sed 
angeli'? It is not at all impro- 
bable. The term, however, here 
must be used in the sense of ' am- 
bassadors' as well. 

' Perbren, 'pear-tree'. . 

^ Pair ' cause' or ' instrumen- 

' Obry, ' beueath'; here, perhaps, 
' secret' or ' underlying'. 

* Buga. It is impossible now to 
make out whom the poet meant 
by Bugn. It could scarcely have 
been ' Boadicea', as Mortimer — 
his very name implies it — seems 
to have been of Norman extrac- 

' Edling-icalch for edlin-walch, 
in reference, probably, to Roger 
Mortimer being heir-apparent to 
the English throne. 

" Oreuraid traed. Many of the 
allusions in this poem are to the 
armorial bearings of the Mortimers. 
The golden-legged eagle may have 
been the crest on his banner. 

' Wyr hurffrwyth, ' the lawful 
grandson'. It must, however, be 
noted that the term wyr is con- 
stantly used in the Mahinogion and 
the Seint Greaì, as well as in later 
centuries, to signify ' descendant'. 
Burffrwyth, it is probable, stands 
here in opposition to hastardd. 

^ lor Aherffraw, ' the lord of 
Aberíîraw'. Inasmuch as this 
town was in ancient times the re- 
sidence of the Princes of Wales 
and had its royal palace, we must 
give the designation of our hero 
here used a wider scope than simj)ly 
' lord of that place'. It seems to 
convey the idea of ' the lord of the 
territory of Aberffraw*. 



Ydcl wyf madws^ yt ddyfod, 
I Gymry rliyglyddyi glod. 
Mab fuost, daethost i dir f 
Gŵr bellacli a grybwyllir f 
Gŵr grym, myu gwyar y grog,* 
Balc^ arnad, bual corniog !'' 
Nid arf, ond eisiau arfer'^ 
arfau prydferth nerth Ner. 
Gwisgo arfau, o gwesgir,^ 
A'u cynnydd fal corn hydd hir f 
A thorri myn di mewn dur 
Paladr^ soccedgadr- cadgur.^ 
Arwain hëyrn* yn chwyrn chwerw. 
A marchogaetli meirch agerw.^ 

® Mculìcs^ ' Ligh time'. We ap- 
preheiid, however, that the word 
bears auother meaning liere, — 
' pleased', ' gratified'. DerÌTÌng 
it fi-om nìo.d, we may venture to 
give it this siguification. 

• Rhii(jlij(ld»j for rlnjglyddi^ ' to 
"Wales thou wilt bring renown'. 

2 Daethost i dir, It is diflBcult 
to arrive at the poet's true meau- 
ing. The phrase luay be a poetical 
mode of saying, ' Thou hast arrived 
at maturity'; or, perhaps^ it is a 
simple statement of his having 
landed in Ireland. 

^ ' One whose deeds shall heuce- 
forth be deemed worthy of com- 

• Gicyar, 'gore'; the blood of 
the cross. 

• Balc, ' balk' ; heuce, ' promi- 
nency' or ' eminency'. 

« Bual, ' wild ox', ' buflFalo'. 

"^ The poet plays on the words 
arf and a)-/er — a rare thing in our 
literature at this early time. 

* Ogwes(jir, ' if pressed', bybeing 
compelled to put on armour. 

" Corn Injdd hir. The horn, espe- 
cially in Iloly Writ, is an emblem 
of strength, and thence of pro- 

> Paladr, ' shaft'. 

^ Socced-gadr, ' firm in its soc- 

' Cadgiir, ' tlie throe of bjittle'. 

* Arwain heyrn, ' dirècting wea- 
pons'. Arwain arfau also signifies 
' to bear arms', as in the Mahi- 
ìiogion, "Arwain cleddyf ar ei 

^ Mcirch agerw, ' steeds with 
steaming nostrils', 'foaming steeds'. 
We cau hardly suppose that the 
ois poetica was so strong in the 
bard as to predict the steam engine. 

48 - lOLO GOCH. 

Ymwan'^ ag ieiill diaramhwynt, 
Ymwrcld, ymgyfwrdd ag hwynt. 
A'th yswain" a'th lain o'th flaen, 
Pennaeth wyd — pwy ni 'th adwaen ì 
A'th hengsmen^ hoyw a'th loyw laif 
Ar gwrser a ragor-saif ; 
A'th helm Iwys a thalm o lu 
I'th ol ar feirch, a theuhi.^ 
A cherdd o'th íiaeu, o raen rwyf,^ 
A chrydr^ a'r pelydr palwyf.^ 
]\Iawr ystâd larll y ISIars doeth ; 
]Mawr y cyfenw, mwy yw 'r cyfoeth. 
!Mawr o fraiut wyt, myn Mair fry, 
]\Iawr dy deitl ; mwy roed ytty ! 
larll Mars, gorau larU ym myd, 
larll Llwdlo,"* ior Uaw waedlyd f 
larU CaerUëon,^ dragon drud, 
Iyrl o AMster,'' ior Iwys-drud. 

6 Ymwaií, ' to combat'. came to him through his grand- 

7 Yswain, ' armour-bearer'. mather, the heiress of Genville. 

8 Hengsmen, 'henchmen\ 'pages', He died in lo6ü, beiug at the time 
' attendants'. commander of the English forces 

9 Thenhi, ' retinue ' here ; al- in Burgundy. Ärch. Camh., áth 
though the word generally signifies Seìies, vol. v, jMcie lü2. 

' family' or 'tribe'. ^ lor Uaic icaedhjd, ' the lord of 

1 Ricyf, ' commander', ' ruler'. the red hand'. The red or bloody 

•2 Chrydr, 'armour'; arfau ani hand was oftentimes the crest of 

icr, says Richards. Welsh chieftains, the emblem of 

3 Pahcyf for jmìahcijf, ' the blood shedding ; it has furnished 

linden tree'. au expressive term for murder— 

■» larll Lhcdlo. This was Roger llawruddiaeth, ' red-handedness'. 

the tenth Lord of Wigmore— the « larll Caerllëon. From the time 

grandfather of the subject of the of Henry III, when the series of 

present poem. He served Edward earls descended from Hugh Lupus 

III in France ; recovered much of terminated, tbe tarldora of Ches- 

the Welsh property. and added to ter has been vested in the Crown, 

it Ludlow, another estate, which or in the hands of members of the 



Henw arall o liyn orau, 

O Ffrens Dug o Clarens clau ; 

llenw da, g\vr heu a'i dieingl, 

Wyr Syr Leiwnel,^ angel Eingl. 

Dragon yw a draig i ni 

A lunia 'r gwaith yleni. 

O ben y llew,^ glew ei gledd, 

Coronir carw o Wynedd. 

Pam mae 'r llew crafang-dew, cryf, 

Mwy nog arth ? myneg wrthyf. 

Yn awr gwaisg ar dy fraisg fraich, 

Wyr^ brenhin Lloegr a'r Brynaich."- 

Pen arglwydd wyd, paun eur-glew,^ 

O eginin a llin llew. 

Pennaf fyddi gwedi gwart, 

Ail rhyswr ar ol Ehisiart.* 

royal family. Roger Mortimer, as 
heir apparent, might therefore be 
coDsidered potentiaJ, if not actual. 
Earl of Chester — larll CaerUeon. 

' Iyrl Wlster. Lionel, grand- 
father of Roger Mortimer, married 
EHzabeth, daughter of WiUiam 
Burgh, Earl of Ulster ; hence the 
allusions here and elsewhere to that 

8 Syr Leiwnel. Lionel, Duke of 
Clarence, was the third son of 
Edward III. His only daughter, 
PhiHppa, married Edmund i\Ior- 
timer, third Earl of March, father 
of the hero of the poem, who was 
therefore ẃyr or grandson of Sir 

* O ben y llew. The allusion is 
to our hero's coat of arms. 

' Wyr, here, ' great grandson'. 

^ Brynaich, was that portion oí 
Scotland that lies between the river 
Tyue and the Firth of Forth. 

The Rev. D. Ellis» in his tran- 
scriptiou of the poem in Y Piser 
Hir^ calls the inhabitants of Bry- 
naich ' Cymry 'r Gogledd'; and 
he was in a measure right, But 
that people included not only the 
men of the East of Scotland, but 
those of the West as well, on the 
banks of the Clyde, and whose 
chief city was ' Dun-briton' or 
' Dumbarton'. The Latin form of 
the word, aud perhaps the English, 
is ' Bernicia'. 

* Gwart, ' guard'. 

* lìhisiart — the first Richard, 
doubtless; Coeur-de-hon. 

5 Erllognrydd, a corrupted form, 
probably, of haerlhigricydd. 


50 lOLO GOCH. 

Gwnaed ieirll Lloegr giiwd erllogr\A'ydd/ 

A fynnon' o son i'w swydd ; 

Teilwng oedd yt' gael talaith 

Aberíìraw, ymandaw^ maith. 

Amserawl mi sy lierod'^ 

Yt ddeffroi i gloi^ dy glod. 

Pa ryw ystyr,^ par osteg, 

Y rhoed i'r arfau tau teg ? 

Pedwar-lliw"^ pedair iarlleth 

Sy daUj pwy piau pob peth. 

Asur sydd yn dy aesawr, 

larll Mars, gyda 'r eur-lliw mawr f 

Sinobl ac arian glân gloyw 

Im' yw 'r ysgwyd amrosgoyw.^ 

Pedair cenedl di edliw 

A ddeiryd yt' Gwyndyd* gwiw : 

Pfrancod, Saeson, wychion weilch, 

Gwyddyl, meib cynfyP cein-feilch, 

Gwaed Pfraingc, gwiw a da ei ffrwyth, 

Ydyw èurlliw diweir-Uwyth ; 

8 Ymandaw. This word is trans- banner of the Earl of Marcli wcre 

latcd by Pughe, ' the keeping one's azure and gold, with gulos argeiit. 

self inanattitudeof hstening'. One ' y-W'U'^ amrosgoiju\ ' the flut- 

]MS. gives ymadaic. It is difficult tering in various directions' of the 

to extract a meaning from either. silver and yermilion banner. The 

^ Herod, för hcrodyr, ' a lierald'. bard seems to have been well versed 

, , , in heraldic devices. 

8 r^,7oí, here, ' to complete. - . ^ ,7 ii i. xi, 

' ' * (Vír!/«//ÿf/usualIyrepresentsthe 

» Pa rwy ystyr? ' of what are people-Yenedotians ; and Gwyn- 

thinearmsemblematical?' ^/,^,^^ ^j^^ country-Gwynedd or 

1 Pedwar-lliw, the four colours Yenedotia. Ilere, however, wc 
represented the four earldoms in opine that the term is used in its 
the possession of our hero, as men- etymological meaning : ' Four na- 
tioned above: viz., those of March, tions ungrudgingly bestow on thee 
Ludlow, Chester, and Ulster. a beautiful territory'. 

2 The prevailing colours in the ^ Cynfyl, ' strife'. 


Urddedig arwydd ydiw 

Breniu yn ngwlad y gwinö gwiw ; 

A chwbl o'r Gien,'^ pen pant, 

Fyddi mwy fydd dy íbddiant ; 

Tau liyd ymylau Maeloegr,^ 

A bid tau 'r lle gorau 'n Lloegr. 

Yn achen y Ddraig wen wiw, 

Eawnllaes, y 'mae 'r arian-lliw. 

Bw^ i Loegr a mablygad,^ 

Anwyl iawn wyd yn y wLad. 

lon Wigmor^ enwog-mawr, 

A Iyrl y ]\Iars, arlwy mawr. 

Gw'awdrydd^ cerdd, gwaed y Ddraig goch 

Yw 'r'sinobl y sy ynoch."* 

Am hynny bydd hy, baedd hoyw, 

Aro^ etto, aur ottoyw.*^ . 

Cael dâr" yw coel dy arwydd. 

Cael gorfod rhagod poed rhwydd. 

Gras Arthur a'i groes wrthyd, 

A'i lŷs, a'i gadlys i gyd. 

• Yn n<j!c!ad ;/ (jwin, Trauce', or ^ Wigmor, ' Wigraore', a castle ia 

more particularly, perhaps, ' Bur- Herefordshire. 
gundy'. ^ Gwaicdrijdd. We can give this 

" Gien, Guienne, in France, word its raeaning ouly by a para- 

^ Maehegr. It is now imjjossible phrase : ' Thou idol of the flowing 

to say what region is raeaut by this muse'. 

narae. In forra it approaches * \Ve cannot but choose to no- 

Maclor. Can it signify — from tice the beauty of these lines : 

MaelanáLlocgr — the parts of Eng- ' The blood of the Red Dragon is 

land more especially devoted to the yerrailion that flows iu thy 

merchandise ? vcins.' 

ä Bic, ' terror', ' dread'. ^ Aro is an- adverb of entreaty ; 

1 Mahlyyad, ' the pupil of the such as ' pray do'. 
eye'. IMortimer was in fact their ^ Otloyu\ ' spur'. ■ He addresses 

terror and their darling. They his hero : ' Thou of the gohleu 

l)üth feared and loved hiui. Ile spur'. 
wus ' the api)le of their eye'. ^ Dûr, ' the oak'. 

52 lOLO GOCH. 

Gorau lle, ail GaerH'ion,^ 
Y sydd iwch' o'r ynys hon. 
Ehyw Gwyddyl, rhywiog^ addas, 
Yw 'r asur, lliw gloyw ddur glas. 
Glewaf grwndwal go galed 
Yw 'r dur glas-lym, grym i gred ; 
Glewach wyd nag ail Galath ;^ 
A^th hychwayw- hoyw, loyw lath, 
1- hyder o uchder iach, 

Hy goresgynny Gouach.^ 
Dos drwy 'r môr a distryw 'r Mydd^ 
flaen y wlad afloiiydd. 
Tref tad i tithau yw Trum,^ 
Tau gastell teg ei ystum. 
Tegwch gwlad Fatholwch^ fu 
Calon y Werddon oerddu. 
Dyrchaf dy stondardd, hardd hwyl, 
Di-archar^ y w dy orchwyl ; 
Gwna fwysmant,^ bid trychant trwch, 
Maccwy mawr, a Mac Morwch.^ 
Tor, rhwyg, a brath tu rag bron 
Draw a Galys^ drwy 'i galon. 

8 G'aoilëon, the seat of Arthur's ^ Qo„ach, ' Connaught', an Irish 
palace and court. province. 

9 Rhyw Gwyddyl rhyicio[/, ' of a * Mydd, ' Meath'. 

fine Irish kind'. Gicyddyl is said " Trum, « Triin', an Irish town 

by Dr. Owen Pughe to be derived and county. 

from Gicydd. Its meaning is ' of * Gwlad Fathohcch, ' Ireland'. 

the woods'. See Mahinogion iii, 81, Bronwen 

1 Galath, one of the Rnights of Yerch Llyr. 

the Rouud Table. See the ' Seint ' Di-archar, ' unrebukable ', 

GreaV passim. ' dauntless', 'dariug'. 

2 Hychwayw, ' a pushing or driv- ^ Fwysmant, 'ambushment', 'am- 
ing spear" ; the spear used in the buscade'. 

wild boar hunt. ^ Mac Morwch, 'au Irish prince". 




Brysia a chleiniia âch L\ii 
Gwlad Wlster, glod Elystan ;" 
Llyngca gyfoeth llawn geu-íalo, 
Myn di yn dau niin Dwn Dalc f 
Yn ol dâl Grednel/ fy ner ; 
Ci fí'alst yw — cyÔ' o \Mster. 
Ti a leddy, clochdy clod, 
Bobl Wlster bob ail ystod.^ 

1 Gdhjs, ' Galway'. 

^ Ehjÿtan^ a Welsh priuce of re- 
nown. He ruled over the territory 
lying between the Severn and tlie 

^ Dun Dalc, ' Duudalk' iu Ire- 

* Grednel, an Irish foe, doubt- 
less of note ; but we can trace no 
rccord of him. 

5 Sir líoger Mortimer, the sub- 

jectof thc poeni, wasshiin in 1.398. 
lolo Goch must, cousequently, have 
written the poem before the close 
of the 14th century. 

At the end of one MS. copy of 
this poem, lolo jNIorganwg has the 
following quaint remark : " lolo 
Goch a'i cànt. Pei 'r Diawl a'i 
cânt, ni allasai ganu yn fwy gwaed- 
gar, yn fwy Iladdgar, yn fwy rhy- 
felgar, nac yn fwy aurhaithgar." 






A ẄELAI 'r neb- a welaf 
Yn y nos pand iawn a wnaf ? 
Pan funi mwyaf poen a fu^ 
Yn huno anian henu. 
Cyntaf y gwelaf mewn gwir 
Caer fawrdeg acw ar fordir,* 
A chastell gwych gorchestawl,^ 
A gwŷr ar fyrddau, a gwawl, 
A glas-for wrth fur glwys-faen,*' 
Garw am groth twr gwrwm^ graen ; 

» Syr Hywkl y Fwyall, ' Sir 
Ilowel of the Battle-axe', a son of 
Einiou ab Gruffydd ab Hywel, a 
iiative of Eifìonydd, was a hero 
celebrated for liis prowess in the 
battle of Poitiers, w^hither he had 
followed the Black Prince. He is 
said to have dismounted the French 
King, haviug cut off his horse's 
head at a blow. He was knighted 
on the íìeld of battle, and made 
Constable of the Castles of Cruc- 
ciaith and Chester. 

^ A icclaí 'r mb. ' A welai neb.' 
— MS. 

^ Pau fu 'n fwya poen a fu. — 

■* Thc castlc of Crucciaith stands 
on the sea coast between Pwllheli 
aud Portmadoc. Its ruins mav 

.stiU be seeu crowuiug a lofty 
mound. One MS. has: — 

' Cadair fawrder acw ar fordir.' 

* One ÄIS. has the niuth and 
tenth line placed before the seventh 
and eighth — a better arrangemeut, 
we think. 

' The same MS. has : — 
' A glas for wrth fur-glwys faen 

Garw o amgylch tir grwmgaen.' 
The picture drawn by lolo Goch 
of the castle, washed by the blue 
waves, is remarkably graphic. Nor 
less so, aud eveu more interestinçr. 
are the scenes within, enlivened 
as they are by music and the 
presence of fair ladies, who are en- 
gaged in the weaviug of si]k. 

" Girrum^ ' bendiug'; lience twr 



A cherdd chwibenygP a chod, 
Gwawr hoenus, a gŵr hynod ; 
Ehianedd, nid rhai anhdyw,'^ 
Yn gwau y sidan^ glân gloyw ; 
Gwŷr beilch yn chwareu gar bartli- 
Tawlbwrdd^ a secr* uwch tal-barth f 
A'r gwynllwyd wr, treiglwr trin^ 
Nawswyllt yn rhoi Yerneiswiu,^ 
Mewn gorfiwch^ aur gorauryn, 
O'i law yn fy llaw yn llyn ; 
Ac ystondardd hardd hir-ddu 
Yn nlial twr^ da filwr fu ; 
A thri blodeuyn^ g^'yn gwiw, 
O'r un-llun ddaiP arian-lliw. 
Eres^ nad oes henuriad 
Ar law Gwynedd, wledd-fawr wlad !^ 

guTwm inay meau ' round tower'. 
The bard describes the waves as 
washing the rough walls that sur- 
rounded the lower portions of the 

s Chriheni/gl, plural of chwiha- 
nofjl, 'a flute' or ' flageolet'; the ad- 
dition of a cliod would poiut to ' the 

^ Anlioyw. The double negative 
gives great force to the affirmative 
' sprightly'. 

1 Yn y sidan glàn gloyw. — MS. 
We can scarcely think they would 
be weaving silk at that early period. 
If f/wan, however, is used, we must 
give it the meaning of ' to net'. 

2 Gar barth, ' near the fireplace'. 

3 Tawlbicrdd, ' a gaming table'. 

* Secr ' chequered', as for chess. 

* This and the previous liues are 
thus given iu one MS. : — 

' Gwŷr beilch yn gware ar barth 
Tawlbwrdd a duon talbarth'. 

" A gŵr gwnllwyd trwclilwyd 
triu . — ]MS. 

Treifjìicr trin, ' the hero that rolls 
back the tide of battle'. 

7 Terjíc/sií.'znorBerneiswin, 'Yer- 
uacia, Yernago, a kind of Italian 
wine. See Du Cange under !>?•- 
nachia, Yernacia. 

One MS. gives these lines thus : 
' A g^YT gwyullwyth, twrch trwyth 
Nowswyllt yu rhoi Barneiswin.' 

8 Gorflwch, ' a goblet', ' a bowl'. 

ä Yn nhal twr, ' on the height and 
front of the tower'. 

' Probably three silver Jleurs- 

2 Ddail. Dail— M.^. 

^ Ercü, ' strange', 'wouderful'.. 



Oes eb yr iin syberwyd 

Breuddwydio obry ydd wyd.^ 

Y wal deg a wely di, 

Da dyddyn ydoedd iddi ; 

O'r Gaer egiur a^r grog-lofft,® 

A'r garreg rudd ar gwr grofft,''' 

Hon yw Crucciaith â'i gwaith gwiw, 

Hen adail honno ydiw ; 

A'r gŵr Uwyd cadr, paladr-ddellt,^ 

Yw Syr Hywel, mangddeP mellt. 

A gwraig Syr gwregys euraid 

Hyw^el, ion rhyfel,^ i'n rhaid ; 

A'i llaw-forwynion, ton teg,^ 

Ydd oeddynt hwy bob ddeuddeg, 

Yn gwau sidan o'r glan-liw 

Wrth haul belydr drwy 'r gwydr gwiw. 

Tau olw^g ti a welud^ 

Ystondardd ys hardd o sud,^ 

* Some MSS. have the follow- 
ing lines iuserted here : — 

' O gwbl a fetro gwybod 
Pettwn lle mynnwii fy mod.' 

But neither the Peniarth MS. nor 
that of the Piser Hir recognise 

^ The Piser Hir gives these lines 
thus : — 
' Oes heb yr un syberw wyd 

Breuddwydio obry ddydwyd.' 

« Grog-lofft was the gallery or 
platform over the screen at the 
entrance of the chancel. But we 
must give it a different meaning 
here. The crown of the tower 
hung over its shaft, hence its upper 
room would bear this appropriate 

name. In our day the term has 
degenerated,and signifies 'anykind 
of attic'. 

■^ Grofft^ probably the English 
' croft', a small meadow near a resi- 

^ Paladr-ddellt, ' shaft of cloven 

' Maiìgddel, mangnel, 'battering 

1 lon rhyfel, ' god of war'. 

2 Toti teg, ' of fair skin'. 

3 OneMS. has:— 

' Tafolwc ti a weîyd 
Ystondardd ys hardd o hyd.' 

* Sud, ' form', ' shape'. 
' Pensel was the grand standard, 
says Dr. Owen Pughe ; HalHwell, 


PenseP Syr Hywel yw hwn ; 

Äfyu Beimo,^ mae 'n ei Lennwn 

Tri fíl\vr-de-lis7 oris erw, 

Yn y sabl nid ansyberw. 

Anian Mab Gruffudd, rudd ron,^ 

Ymlaen am ei elynion ; 

Yn enneiniaw gwayw mewn gwaed, 

Anniweir-drefn ion eur-draed, 

Ysgythrwr cad ail Syr Goethrudd,^ 

Esgud ei droed, esgid rudd. 

Ysgithredd baedd ysgethring, 

A.sgwrn hen yn angen ing. 

Pan rodded trawsged rhwys-gaingc^ 

Y fír\vyn yn mhen Brenin Ffraingc,^ 

Barbwr* fu fal mab Erbin,^ 

A gwayw a chledd tromwedd trin.'' 

on the contrary, describes it as ' a 
small banuer'. Lookiug at the 
etymology of the word, wliich is 
purely Celtic, it is impossible not 
to agree with the former. 

s Beuno^ a saint of the seventh 
century who, assuming the mouas- 
tic habit, retired to Clynnog in 
Caernarvonshire, where he built a 
church and founded a college. 

' Ffìwr-de-lis. Sir Howel as- 
sumed the Jleurs-de-lys, as the con- 
queror of the King of France, 
whom he is said to have dismounted 
in battle. 

8 Rôn, ' spear'. 

ä ' The spirit of the son of Gruf - 
fydd, of the red spear, is to rush 
forward on his foes.' Without 
some such paraphrase, it would be 
imjpossible to give effect to the 

strong compressed language of the 

' Sì/r GoetJirudd, oue of the 
Knights of the Kound Table. 

2 Rhwys-gaingCi an epithet of 
trawsged, but scarcely intelligible 

^ John, King of France, was 
made prisoner, and continued a 
captive for some five years. 

* Barhwr, ' a tonsor', uot of boards 
like Rhitta Gawr, but of lieads. 

^ Mah Erhiu, Geraiut, a cliief- 
tain or prince of Dyfnaint, or 
Devon, in the fifth century. The 
story of Geraint ab Erbin will be 
found in the MaUnogion. 

« Tromwcdd trin, ' the heavy 
weapons of battle'. 

^ Benuau a barfau y bu. — MS. 



Eillio, o'i nerth a'i allu, 
Fennau a barfau^ y bu ; 
A gollwng, gynta' gallai, 
Y gwaed tros draed trist i rai.* 
Anwyl fydd gan wyl Einiort, 
Aml ei feirdd a mawl ei fort. 
• Cadw 'r bobl mewn cadair bybyr,^ 
Cedwi 'r castell gwell na 'r gwŷr. 
Oadw dwy lirs,^ ceidwad loensiamp,^ 
Cadw 'r ddwywlad, cadw 'r gad, cadw 'r gamp ; 
Cadw 'r môr-darw cyd a'r mor-dir, 
Cadw 'r môrdrai, cadw 'r tai, cadw 'r tir ; 
Cadw 'r gwledydd oll, cadw 'r glewdwr, 
A chad\v 'r gaer — iechyd i'r gŵr I 

8 After this line tlie foUowing lucubrations on this pocm to Syr 

couplet ajipears in one MS. : — Hyicel y Ficijcill, we cannot help 

, ^ - , , expressiníî our deep regret at the 

'Gwardenyw,garwdeunaw-osgl, '..^. 'u ^,,,. ^^^^_ 

A maer yn y drwsgaen drosgl, . ,. , 

scni^ts of the poem are so yarious 

8 CöJair ?^ÿ%r, ' firm throne'. — no two MSS. being alike — and 

, ^ , , ,. T , theyhavebeensocarelesslywrought, 

> Cadw dwy hrs. In a note, •' j o j 

that a correct text cannot now be 

made. We haye deemed it a more 

Letüis Glyn Cothi, vii, iv, 59, lir is 

translated ' livery', That, probably, 

. .^ , , honest, if not a wiser course, to 

is its meanmg here, „ ' . ' , 


allow passages to remain unravel- 

' Locììsiamp or lorsiamp, ' a coat . ]^;(j, than to hazard conjectures— 

of raail'; from Jorica and campus. oftentimos proyed by new elucida- 

SeeGlossarytoDafyddabGwilym's tions to b'; wide of the mark— 

Works, page 545. which mig it mislead and disap- 

In coucluding our wearisome point. 




Edwakt ap Edwaht, gwart gwŷr, 
AL Edwart auian Bedwyr -^ 
Edwart ^yyr^ Edwart ydwyd, 
Trydydd Edwart, Uewpart llwyd ; 
Ar awr dda,'* arwraidd ior, 
Aur gwnsallt,? erjr Gwineor,^ 
Y'tli aned o'th ddaioni ; 
Na fetho turn^ fyth i ti ! 
Cael a wnaethost, post peisdew,^ 
Calon a Uawfron y llew. 
A fîriw^ lygliw/ olyg-loyw,^ 
A phryd dawn,^ a phriod hoyw. 

* Aerfa Cressi. Eclward inyaded 
Frauce to make good his claim to 
the Crown. He defeated the foe 
at Crecy. and took Calais. He 
died at llichmond in 1377. 

2 Bedwìjr was one of the brayest 
knights üf King Arthur's court, 
and was the pentruUiad, ' chief 

^ Wyr is here literally ' grand- 
son'. The term, however, is more 
generally used by the poets of this 
age, to siguify ' descendant'. 

< Ar aicr dda. In other words 
— ' His star was in the ascendant'. 

* Gìoisallt, ' a military garment', 
' a general's robe'. 

^ Eryr Gicinsor. Edward III 
was surnamed 'of Windsor'. It 
was the place of his birth. 

' Turn. We could almost fancy 
this word to be a corrupted form 
of teyrn, ' sovereiguty'. We must, 
however, iu deference to high au- 
thority, strip it of the dignity, and 
give it tbe huinbler siguiíication of 
' a good turn'. 

** J^ost peisdew. Pais is * coat'; 
pais-ddur, 'a coat of mail'. It 
must be regarded here as a robe of 

" Fj'riw, ' mien', ' countenance'. 

' Li/gliic, ' dusky', ' dark'. 

2 ()hj{/-lnyw, ' bright-eycd'. Thc 



A pliob iaith, cydymaith caclr ; 
Eiigyhiidd wyd, fy ngwaladr.^ 
Cefais gost, cefaist gysteg,^ 
Yn nechreu d' oes yn wychr^ deg ; 
Yn ostwng pawb anystwyth, 
Lloegr a Ffraingc, lle gorau ffrwyth. 
Cof cyfedliw''' heddiw hyn — 
Eob ail brwydr gan bobl Brydyn.** 
Difa eu llu lle bu 'r baicli, 
Dâl brenin, dileu Brynaich/ 
Dolurio rhai, dâl eraill, 
Llusgo 'r ieirll oU, llosgi 'r llaiU. 
Curaist â blif,^ ddylif ddelw/ 
Cerrig Caer Ferwig-^ fur-welw.^ 

portrait our poet draws of Edward 
is grapliic iu tlie extreme. The 
dark couuteuance animated by a 
clear, brilliaut eye ; the body ap- 
parelled iu a coat of heavy mail, 
and enclosiug the heart and cour- 
age of a liou ; together forui a uo 
meau picture of combiued heroism 
and royalty. As he proceeds, the 
bard scems to warm towards tlie 
Euglish monarch, until at last he 
makes him somethiug more than 
human, aud iuvokes him as liis 
lord. Aud to a certain extent he 
was right. Edward III was " every 
inch a king". 

^ A phrijd daw. — MS. 

* Fy 7igiculad)\ ' my sovereign', 
' my leader'. 

^ Gijsteg^ ' affliction', ' paiuful 
labour'. The early years of Ed- 
ward liad beeu tempestuous. Tlie 
shock he muí;t have felt at the 
executiou of his uncle, the conduct 

of his mother, who cohabited openly 
with the Earl of March, his own 
gallaut arrest of Mortimer aud the 
briuging him to trial aud execu- 
tiou, were severe incideuts iu so 
young a life. All occurred before 
he reached his majority. 

^ Wychr, 'stout', ' cheerful', ' re- 

' Cof ojfedUic^ ' a memorial of 
reproach', ' a disgrace'. 

^ Brydyn. The allusion is to the 
hing's wars in Scotland. 

^ Brynaich. See note 2, p. 49. 

• Blif ' a kind of catapult for 
throwiug large stones. 

- Ddylif ddelw, ' in the mauuer 
of a dehige or torrent'. 

=" Caer Fericig. ' Berwick-on- 
Tweed'. From the taking of the 
town by Edward it has remaiuHd 
iu the possession of the Euglish to 
the ijresent time. 


Ehoist ar gythlwug, rhwystr gwytMaM-n,^ 

Ar for Udd aerfa fawr iawn. 

Gelyn fuost i'r Galais,^ 

gael y dref, goleu drais. 

Perygl fu i byrth Paris/ 

Trwst y gâd lle 'i t'rewaist gis.^ 

Grasus dy hynt yn Gressi f 

Gras teg a rydd Grist i ti ! 

Llithiodd dy fyddin, lin leni, 

Prain by w ar frenin Böem ;^ 

Ehedaist, mor hy ydwyd, 

Hyd y nef ; ehed}Ti wyd. 

AYeithian ni 'th ddi-g}'woethir, 

Ni thyn dyn derfyn dy dir. 

Gwna dithau — doniau dy daid — ^ 

Doethineb da i'th enaid ; 

Cymmod â Duw, nid cam-oes^ 

Cymmer jn dy giyfder groes.^ 

* Fnr-ìcchr, ' of decaying or was appealed to by a messenger 

crumbling walls'. for help, he refused with the words: 

5 Môr U'ld, ' the English Chan- — " Let the boy win his spurs." 
nel'. The King stood on an eminence 

6 Galais is the name, or rather whence he could survey the whole 
the form of it, which is generally field, aud was aware, doubtless, 
found in ancient MSS. that the Prince was in no inextri- 

' Edward led his army on to- cable difficulty. 

ward Paris, and the city was ^ Böem, ' Bohemia'. The lau- 

thrown into a panic. It was saved guage of the Bard in this passage 

only by the most strenuous exer- is highly poetical : — "Thinearmy, 

tions aud the help of German a fierce brood, enticed the ravens 

knights. on tbe King of Bohemia." 

8 6'ẁ, ' a blow', ' a stripe'. * Dy da'ul. The first Edward, 

9 Gressi. This battle was vir- ^ Groes. We must not suppose 
tually fought by the Black Prince, that lolo would have his hero take 
who was at one time so hardly up the cross iu the sensc that our 
pressed, as to be doemed in pcril Divine Master used the words. As 
by his foUowers. When Edward the context shows, he calls on iiim 

62 lOLO GOCH. 

Od ai i Eoeg, mae darogan, 
Darw glew, y ceffi dîr giân, 
A'r luddew-dref arw ddidrist, 
A theimlo grog a theml Grist ; 
A goresgyn a'r grwys-gaith* 
Gaerusalem, Fethle'm faith. 
Tarw gwych, ceffi 'r tir a'r gwŷr ; 
Torr fanw^aith tai Ehufeinwyr ; 
Cyrch hyd yn min Constinobl ; 
Cer bron Caer Bab'lon cur bobl. 
Cyn dy farw y cai arwain 

Y tair coron cywair cain, 

A ddygwyd gynt ar hynt rhwydd ; 
Ar deir-gwlad er Duw Arglwydd ; 
Tirion-rhwydd a'r tair anrheg 
A'th wedd, frenin teyrnedd teg. 
Teilwng rhwng y tair talaith 
Frenin Cwlen^ fawr-wen faith. 
I wen-wlad nef ef a fedd, 

Y doi yno 'n y diwedd. 

to join the Crusades, describing the * Gni'ys-gaitîi. Gaith, says llich- 

state iu which he would find ards, is the same as caeth. These 

Greece, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and -n'ords must then be trauslated: — 

so on. Edward's prowess in Scot- ' ^Mth the captive cross' — the cross 

land aud France led the Bard to that -was then in the power of the 

expect great results in the East Saracens. 
also from his achievements. ® Cwlen, ' Cologne'. 




Myn'd yr wyf i dîr Mon^ draw — 
Mynycli ini' ei ddymunaw — 
I ymwybod^ â meibion 
Tudur fy naf/ Mordaf ^ Mon : 
Gronwy, Ehys, ynys hynaif,^ 
Ednyfed, Gwilym lym laif.''' 
Eliys, Ednyfed rodd-ged rwy,^ 
Gway wlym graen^ Gwilym Gronwy ■} 

' Tudur Lìwyâ was of the stock 
whence descended Owen Tudur, 
the founder of the Tudor dyuasty 
in Englaud. 

* lolo tíoch was a native of the 
county of Deubigh. His home was 
thus a considerable distauce from 

* Ymwybod. Independeutly of 
the exigencies of the cynyhanedd, 
the use of this tenu is very appro- 
priate here. While ymwelcd — the 
word that usually denotes ' to visit' 
— in its etymological meaning, 
simply impMes ' to see aud to be 
seen', ymwyhod couveys the idea of 
'to know and to be kuowu, as froui 
intercourse', 'to bccome personally 

< Naf, ' lord'. 

* Mordaf was oue of tlie tliree 
generous chieítaius of the Isle of 

Britain. It is uot uuusual with 
the ^Velsh bards to make the name 
of a renowued chieftaiu or lady aa 
epithet of the persou of whom he 
is then siuging. Nor is this prac- 
tice coufiued to tbem. The name 
MecsBuas, for instance, is given 
frequently to a patron of poets and 
literati. lu his beautiful verses on 
the marriage of Sir Richard Bulke- 
ley, Jolm Blackwell complimeuts 
the bride with the name of Nest: — 

" Ystanley sy Nest hoeulon 
Iddo, a merch uewydd Mon." 

^ Hynaif ' aucestors'; here, per- 
haps, ' patriarchs' or • rulers'. 

7 Llaif ylaif ' sharp weapon', 
' a glaive'. 

^ Ru-y, ' excess'; here, probably 
its mcaning is ' abundant'. 

* O'racn, ' aspcrity', ' bolducs.s'. 

' Thc bard, to avoid giving uu- 

64 lOLO GOCH. 

Eclnyfed, Gronwy rhwy Ehun," 

Rhys, Gwilym ail rwysg Aluu/'^ 

Gwilym Gronwy yw ^n gwaladr,* 

Ednyfed, rhoes ged Rbys gadr ; 

Pedwar eglur pedroglion^ 

Angelystôr^ gar môr Mon. 

Pedwar Nudd'^ — Pedr i'w noddi — • 

Poed ar awr dda mawr i mi ! 

Pedwar-maib — pwy a'u dirmyg ? 

Plaid ni âd im ddim plyg^ 

laith o figion^ iaith fyged, 

Gwynedd pedwar cydwedd ced. 

Plant Tudyi', fy eryr fu, 

Peunod haelion pen teulu ; 

Aerfa^ 'r Uu ar for Uiant, 

Aur dorllwyth yw 'r blaenífrwyth bhmt ; 

Teirw ergryd^ haerllyd eurllin, 

Terydr^ aer taer ar y drin.^ 

due prominence to any j)articular quadrature', or ' square', as for 

one, mingles the names of the four battle. 

sons promiscuously. 6 Ancjehjstor, ' evaugelist', of 

2 lìhun. There were several dis- ^yhom there v/ere four, as there 
tinguished men of this name. Tlie -were here four sons. 

principal were PJum, a son of , p^^j^^,^^, ^,^^^_^_ g^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^ 
Maeìjicn Gwijnedd, who succeeded ^^^ preceding page. 

his father; Ehun, tìie son oî Pere- „ ^, . , , „ „ 

, j. w xi 1 his and the lollowmg Ime are 

dur, who was restored to the so- .^ , t • • 

. ^ , , , , 1 » T 1 1 mamíestly corrupt^ It is impossible 

vereignty ou the death oi idwal ; , , , , 

1 r.7 n 1 1 n / r ii- XI • 1 to uuderstaud them as they are 

and Bhun Baladr Bras (oi the thick . "' 

shaft), who succeeded his father, 

LleonGaior. ' ^4«/«, ' battle-field'. ' The 

3 Alun, here 'the river Alun'. battle-fìeld of the host ou ocean's 
The rush of Gwilym was like that "öod • 

of the stream or torrent. > Ergryd, for ergrydr, ' causing 

* Gwaladr, ' a disposer'; hence, to trerable'. 

' the head' or ' leader of a people'. ^ Terydr, ' ardent workers'. 

* Pedroglion, ' meu to form a •■' Drin, ' Battle'. 


DA Y Cymmrodor